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Current fossil and DNA evidence shows that all existing species can trace a continual ancestry back to the first primitive life forms. Overview of products and scientific results — Table 9. All selections are tolerant of heavy pruning, which makes them suited for clipped hedges. More Support for Biocomplexity as a Research Paradigm". Disadvantages include problems caused by waves and tides, the tendency for excavations to silt up, and the washing away of spoil heaps.

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Some, however such as egg cells of birds, can be seen with the naked eye. Others, like nerve cells, may be very small in some of their dimensions, but extremely long; a single human nerve cell may be as much as 3 or 4 feet long, and an elephant's nerve cell may be even longer.

To say that cells are generally small is not saying much, however, because even among microscopic cells there is a wide range in size. Biologists took it for granted that cells are bounded by a membrane - the plasma membrane, as it is often called. Cell image from http: The cell membrane is not simply an envelope giving mechanical strength and shape and some protection to the cell, though these functions are important. It regulates the traffic in materials between the precisely ordered interior of the cell and essentially unfavorable and potentially disruptive outer environment.

Usually portions of the cell flow around the material, enclosing it within a chamber. When the engulfed material is liquid or consists of very small particles, the process is often termed pinocytosis.

Cell Biology Links - Click on the links below for detailed information. Everything you need to know about Protonema. Moss gametophytes and sporophytes Moss capsule Moss antheridia Moss archegonia Marchantia thallus Marchantia archegonia Marchantia antheridia. Ligustrum Leaf Cross Section. Evergreen ligustrum often called privet shrubs and trees thrive throughout the state of Florida.

They are widely used as landscape shrubs, hedges, and specimen trees. Many species and cultivars are available with a diversity of leaf colors, leaf forms, and growth habits. All selections are tolerant of heavy pruning, which makes them suited for clipped hedges. Because of a rapid growth rate, many require pruning to maintain them within bounds.

The white flowers are attractive during late spring and early summer. However, the pungent odor may be objectionable. The nucleus plays the central role in cellular reproduction, the process whereby a single cell undergoes cell division and forms two new cells. The nucleus directs the metabolic activities of the living cell and guides the life of the cell as long as it lives. They are composed of nucleic acid and protein.

The chromosomes bear, apparently in linear arrangement, the basic units of heredity, called genes. They are the code units of the transmission of bits of information from parent to offspring, and for the determination of the enzymes that so precisely regulate the myriad interdependent chemical reactions of life.

Genes and Chromosomes - Biology: DNA in a Nutshell! DNA - From the Beginning. Primer on Molecular Genetics from the U. Up to 3 fragments may be cloned at a time can you replicate that in the lab? Each fragment may be inverted relative to its original orientation.

Genetic elements contained in the cloned fragments are transferred to the cloned DNA. We found an excellent Genetics tutorial: You will have to register to view it but it is free.

A virus can multiply only inside a host cell, whose genetic mechanisms it subverts for its own reproduction. Both the structure of the virus and its mode of replication differ widely between viruses. The usual outcome of a viral infection is the lysis destruction of the infected cell, with the release of viral particles. Some viruses, however, can instead become integrated into the host chromosome, where their genes are replicated along with those of the host cell.

Because viruses sometimes carry host DNA sequences from one species to another, they make possible an occasional mixing of different gene pools during their evolution. Virulent viruses usually kill the cells they infect. Other viruses, although also often able to kill cells, frequently have a more subtle effect. These viruses are called temperate. Virus infected bacteria which appear un-infected but have the hereditary ability to produce phage, are called lysogenic.

Upon infection, genes promoting both lytic growth and lysogenic integration are expressed. Which pathway succeeds is determined by the competing action of these early gene products and by the influence of host factors. The lambda phage is a well studied temperate phage which can grow in synchrony with its host E.

The lytic cycle is that part of the life cycle of a temperate phage in which it multiplies rapidly, destroying its host and releasing many copies into the medium. The pathway genes in the lambda immunity region are: The lambda system provides one of the best studied examples of a genetic switch. Two back-to-back promoters in the region of cI and cro control the genetic switch.

When cI is present it activates its own synthesis and blocks transcription of cro. When cI is inactivated, transcription of cro can occur, resulting in the lytic cycle. The cI protein combines with the operator, Or.

Polymerase are enzymes producing a polynucleotide sequence, complementary to a pre-existing template polynucleotide. Polymerization is the combination of several molecules to form a more complex molecule, usually by addition or a condensation process. It is sometimes a reversible process. Biology I Reference Sites. Gram Negative Stain - Red or pinkish.

Why does it stain this way? The color differences are sometimes subtle so learn to recognize the differences! When, as the result of my first communications on the fermentations in , it appeared that the ferments, properly so-called, are living beings, that the germs of microscopic organisms abound in the surface of all objects, in th air and in water; that the theory of spontaneous generation is chimerical; Book Directory Computational Molecular Biology: An Integration of Chemistry Click on the names in the List below for detailed information.

It is known for its nitrogen fixing abilities, and they form symbiotic relationships with certain plants, such as the mosquito fern. They are one of four genera of cyanobacteria that produce neurotoxins , which are harmful to local wildlife, as well as farm animals and pets.

Joint-Legs Phylum Arthropoda M Those That Sting - Visit the Oregon Coast Aquarium's virtual jellyfish exhibit to learn about the jellyfish's biology, life cycle, relatives and even see live pictures on the JellyCam. Also has two classroom activities, one K-4 and the other Introduction to the Ctenophora - Information on ctenophores "comb jellies" with links to cnidarian and jellyfish information. Invasion of the jellyfish.

Sea Stars - Information on its description, habitat, diet, breeding, etc. Confocal Image Gallery - Marchantia Sporophyte. Deuterostomia - Lophotrochozoans vs. Metabolic Pathways Wall Chart. You can access the individual images by clicking in a reduced image of an entire section of the wall chart use the linkS below.

Stem Cells; Scientific Progress and A Global Resource Scientific American: Science and the Citizen: If you enjoy caring for people and are intrigued by a job where you will constantly learn and interact with people, than learn more about online medical assisting degrees.

As a medical assistant, you will work closely with a physician and perform clinical tasks as well as work on administrative tasks. Human Anatomy Online - InnerBody. What is zoology anyway? The study of animals. The branch of biology that studies and classifies animals and animal life. It is a branch of biology that is concerned with the scientific study of animals, including their biology, distribution, and identification and including the study of animals - mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, spiders, and mollusks including mussels.

The science and history of the animal kingdom, including its king, the House Fly Musca maledicta. The father of Zoology was Aristotle, as is universally conceded, but the name of its mother has not come down to us. Two of the science's most illustrious expounders were Buffon and Oliver Goldsmith, from both of whom we learn L'Histoire generale des animaux and A History of Animated Nature that the domestic cow sheds its horn every two years.

OK, OK enough of the definitions - now tell me some zoology details. I want details please. Animals - Animal Kingdom Sites. University of Michigan - Zoology BiologyBrowser.

General animal kingdom sites: Since the [natural] history of man interests us most directly and should stand as the basis of comparison to which we submit the accounts of all other animals, we shall treat it in greater detail. Amphibians Loads of information on amphibians. Includes a tutorial on amphibian embryonic development, amphibian pictures and more.

Birds Information on bird identification, bird songs, pictures, clipart and more. This course satisfies a high school mathematics graduation requirement. To prepare for careers in agriculture, food, and natural resources, students must acquire technical knowledge in the discipline as well as apply academic skills in mathematics.

To prepare for success, students need opportunities to reinforce, apply, and transfer their knowledge and skills related to mathematics in a variety of contexts.

The placement of the process standards at the beginning of the knowledge and skills listed for each grade and course is intentional. The process standards weave the other knowledge and skills together so that students may be successful problem solvers and use mathematics efficiently and effectively in daily life. The process standards are integrated at every grade level and course. When possible, students will apply mathematics to problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace.

Students will use a problem-solving model that incorporates analyzing given information, formulating a plan or strategy, determining a solution, justifying the solution, and evaluating the problem-solving process and the reasonableness of the solution.

Students will select appropriate tools such as real objects, manipulatives, paper and pencil, and technology and techniques such as mental math, estimation, and number sense to solve problems. Students will effectively communicate mathematical ideas, reasoning, and their implications using multiple representations such as symbols, diagrams, graphs, and language.

Students will use mathematical relationships to generate solutions and make connections and predictions. Students will analyze mathematical relationships to connect and communicate mathematical ideas. Students will display, explain, or justify mathematical ideas and arguments using precise mathematical language in written or oral communication. Department of Agriculture USDA grades; estimation of wildlife populations and pulpwood yields; and calculation of mapping data inherent to systems of agriculture or agribusiness.

Equine Science may address topics related to horses, donkeys, and mules. To prepare for careers in the field of animal science, students must enhance academic knowledge and skills, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations. Livestock Production One Credit , Adopted Livestock Production may address topics related to beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and poultry.

To prepare for careers in the field of animal science, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

Small Animal Management may address topics related to small mammals such as dogs and cats, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills in a variety of settings. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and To prepare for careers in the field of animal science, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire technical knowledge and skills related to animal systems and the workplace, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry expectations.

To prepare for success, students need opportunities to learn, reinforce, apply, and transfer knowledge and skills and technologies in a variety of settings. Food and Drug Administration; and. This course satisfies a high school science graduation requirement. Instruction is designed to allow for the application of scientific and technological aspects of animal science through field and laboratory experiences. To prepare for careers in the field of animal science, students must attain academic skills and knowledge, acquire knowledge and skills related to animal systems, and develop knowledge and skills regarding career opportunities, entry requirements, and industry standards.

Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable. Scientific methods of investigation are experimental, descriptive, or comparative. The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Students should be able to distinguish between scientific decision-making methods scientific methods and ethical and social decisions that involve science the application of scientific information.

All systems have basic properties that can be described in space, time, energy, and matter. A checkbric for grading the habitat diorama project. Animal groups signs to sort projects in the classroom "zoo". Includes 7 signs in both color and black and white.

Animal habitats signs to sort projects in the classroom "zoo". Includes 8 signs in both color and black and white. Nametags for students to wear at the "zoo" designating them as an animal expert.

Nametags are fillable forms. Invitations for inviting families or other classes to tour the classroom zoo. Includes color and black and white. Invitations are fillable forms. Recording pages for visitors to record facts about the animal exhibits at the zoo. A reflection page for students to complete after holding a classroom zoo. This Jeopardy-style PowerPoint game reviews states of matter, changes, important terms, and ways to measure matter.

A test on the major concepts of matter including multiple choice, fill-in the blank, short answer, and written responses. A PowerPoint slideshow to teach the three forms of matter - solids, liquids, and gases. Includes interactive slides for students to identify if objects are solids, liquids, or gases. Photographs of solids 12 and liquids 12 to use in sorting activities. Students will discuss the properties used to sort. A complete unit filled with ideas and recording sheets for 8 solid learning stations and 8 liquid learning stations.

Also includes booklet covers for stations and a rubric for grading. Includes 19 files below. Measuring Solids - Students use centimeters and inches to measure various solids. Identifying Solids - Students cut and label solids from magazines. Reading about Solids - Students record facts, examples, and questions about solids during reading.

Weighing Solids - Students use a balance scale to weigh solids with two different units of measure. Researching Solids - Students research solids using a website and record new information learned. Sorting Solids - Students draw and write how they sorted solids according to their properties. Counting Solids - Students understand that solids can be counted as they tally and record the number of certain solids in the classroom. Solids Presentation - Students create a storyboard for a PowerPoint slide to show what they've learned about solids.

Measuring Liquids - Students use teaspoons and tablespoons to measure various liquids. Identifying Liquids - Students cut and label liquids from magazines. Reading about Liquids - Students record facts, examples, and questions about liquids during reading.

Weighing Liquids - Students use a balance scale to weigh lliquids with two different units of measure. Researching Liquids - Students research liquids using a website and record new information learned.

Sorting Liquids - Students draw and write how they sorted liquids according to their properties. Pouring Liquids - Students understand that liquids can be poured as they time the number of seconds it takes to pour various liquids. Liquids Presentation - Students create a storyboard for a PowerPoint slide to show what they've learned about liquids.

A rubric for grading students' participation and work in solid and liquid stations. Students choose 3 activities from this tic-tac-toe grid to practice matter concepts. Students move around the room to identify types of matter in this game. Great to review for the test! Students move around the room to identify types of simple machines in this game.

Students write and illustrate a story about how to use simple machines to lift a zoo animal into its cage! An entire unit filled with magnet experiments, writing activities, and assessment.

Includes 11 files below. A cover to create student portfolios of magnet activities and journal writings. Portfolio Activity 1 - Students explore the classroom to find out what magnets will stick to.

Portfolio Activity 2 - Students explore various objects to determine the kinds of objects magnets will attract. Portfolio Activity 4 - Students explore the poles of magnets to learn about attract and repel. Portfolio Activity 5 - Students use paperclips to explore the strength of different parts of a magnet. Portfolio Activity 6 - Students make magnetic patterns with various shaped magnets and filings. Journal writing pages for Portfolio Activities that requires students to use key words from the lessons.

A scoring guide for grading Portfolio Activities and Journal writings. An entire unit filled with plant experiments, writing activities, minibooks, and data collection. Includes 14 files below.

7th Graders - Life Science - it's alot like Biology!!