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The largest aquatic form is the elephant seal Mirounga leonina , which may weigh 3, kg 8, pounds. Traditional desserts are often unavoidable, especially those made only during Ramadan. Only 3 left in stock - order soon. Occurs when the normal sequence of events of the shedding process is somehow interrupted. Being housed in a room heated by central heating or space heaters.
Answers: Raw Diets and Cats, What About Eating Bones?
In severe cases, death may result. Stomach worms of the genus Physaloptera are seen in lizards. Gastric ulceration may occur in severe infections. Ova are elliptical and may be embryonated. Numerous snakes are infected by Kalicephalus spp. This hookworm, capable of transcutaneous infestation, prefers the upper GI tract and causes erosive lesions at sites of attachment.
Ova are similar to those of Physaloptera spp. Large granulomas caused by the above species have also caused GI obstruction in snakes. Ascarids frequently infect reptiles. Ova are similar to those of ascarids from mammalian hosts.
Severe lesions and death may be seen in infected snakes. Clinically infected snakes frequently regurgitate partially digested food or adult nematodes and are anorectic. The major lesions are large granulomatous masses in the GI tract; they may abscess and perforate the intestinal wall. Many other nematode species may be found in reptiles.
Capillarid, trichurid, and oxyurid ova may be found on fecal examination. The nonpathogenic larval and oval forms of parasites of prey items eg, Syphacia obvelata , the mouse pinworm may be found when infected prey is consumed.
Treatment should be attempted when evidence of parasitism is present. Some larval forms of nematodes are suspected or confirmed to penetrate the skin eg, Strongyloides and Kalicephalus , bypassing the oral reinfection route.
The subtle nature of reinfection by this route often goes unnoticed until the reptile is overwhelmed by parasites. Close attention to the immediate removal of excreta and fastidious sanitation help reduce parasite burdens in captivity. Dermal lesions caused by the spirurid worm Dracunculus spp may be seen.
Numerous species of spirurids infect the mesentery, coelomic cavity, and blood vessels. These worms require a mechanical vector, so their incidence is reduced in captive-bred reptiles or in reptiles that have been in captivity longterm.
Pentastomes are found in a wide variety of reptiles, with variable pathogenicity. Pentastomid infections are occasionally associated with pneumonic signs, but these primitive arthropods can inhabit any tissue, and symptoms will vary with their migration path and tissues responses. Pentastomes were initially found primarily in tropical poisonous snakes; however, as more necropsies on reptiles were performed, more were found. Necropsy results from 88 bearded dragons showed that 11 were infested with pentastomes.
The most novel approach has been to endoscopically locate and mechanically remove all the adult pentastomes. Recognition of pentastomal infestations is important, because these parasites are thought to present a zoonotic risk. Numerous protozoans are found on reptiles; most are harmless commensals. The most serious protozoal pathogen of reptiles is Entamoeba invadens.
Clinical signs are anorexia, weight loss, vomiting, mucoidal or hemorrhagic diarrhea, and death. Entamoebiasis may be epidemic in large snake collections. Herbivores appear less susceptible than carnivores; a number of reptiles that seldom become affected or die can serve as carriers, including garter snakes, northern black racers, and box turtles. Although most turtles are resistant, the giant tortoises are susceptible.
Other resistant groups include eastern king snakes, crocodiles, and cobras possibly as an adaptation that allows them to eat snakes. Most boas, colubrids, elapids, vipers, and crotalids are highly susceptible. Transmission is by direct contact with the cyst form. Hepatic abscesses containing numerous E invadens trophozoites are common in chronic cases.
At necropsy, gross lesions may extend from the stomach to the cloaca. The intestine shows areas of ulceration that tend to coalesce, caseous necrosis, edema, and hemorrhage.
Multifocal abscesses in a swollen, friable liver are seen in the hepatic form. Identification of trophozoites or cysts in a wet preparation of fresh feces or tissue impressions, or in histologic sections, is diagnostic.
Turtles and snakes should not be housed together. E invadens is best treated with metronidazole. Tetracycline and paromomycin have been used but are considered ineffective against the hepatic form.
Strict sanitation and hygiene measures should be observed. Flagellates, especially Hexamita spp, have been reported to cause urinary tract disease in chelonians and intestinal disease in snakes. Differentiation between the species requires expertise, and special preservatives and stains are required to identify most of these organisms. Metronidazole has been used to treat flagellates. Indigo snakes, king snakes, and uracoan rattlers should be treated at the low end of this dosage range.
Early studies with benzimidazoles are very encouraging and should also be considered as a viable therapy. Several coccidial organisms have been reported: Klossiella from the kidney, Isospora from the gallbladder and intestine, and Eimeria from the gallbladder.
The severity of disease varies with the coccidia and affected species. Because of their direct life cycle, these parasites can increase to tremendous numbers, especially in immunosuppressed reptiles.
Oocysts are not fragile and can survive for weeks in a dessicated condition. Fastidious, daily cleanings are necessary to remove all feces and feces-contaminated food and water. Insects and other food items must be removed on a daily basis, because they are another source of contamination eg, crickets may eat the oocysts while gathering fluid from the feces. Persistent treatment using sulfadimethoxine is required until infection is resolved, often taking 2—4 wk; success should be measured by serial fecal samples.
A family business at heart with a team of extremely knowledgeable, loyal, dedicated staff, we aim to help you find the right products for your customers at the right price. Monkfield sets the bar when it comes to livefood production and continue to do so. Buying any pet is a big decision but there are several things you may want to consider first. Following the successful acquisition of Arcadia Reptile in the Spring of this year, we have today acquired the Aquatic side of the business also.