Liver: nature’s most potent superfood

Graphical abstract

Obesity: identification, assessment and management
Ye Z, Song H. But few realize that the current state of wide spread soil erosion in North America threatens our way of life. Calcium and vitamin d supplementation decreases incidence of stress fractures in female navy recruits. Seems we get plenty of Phosphorous. It is very difficult to conduct research spanning more than several years in length. My father hunted and everytime he would bring home a elk from a hunt i was so excited to eat the heart and liver.

NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTION

C.C.Medical Services

Keep a copy of the agreed goals and actions ensure the person also does this , or put this in the person's notes. Take into account the person's:.

Ensure there is adequate time in the consultation to provide information and answer questions. Provide contact details so that the person can get in touch when they are ready. The focus may be on either weight maintenance or weight loss, depending on the person's age and stage of growth. Give praise to successes and encourage parents to role-model desired behaviours. Recommend types of physical activity, including:.

Take into account the person's current physical fitness and ability for all activities. Encourage people to also reduce the amount of time they spend inactive, such as watching television, using a computer or playing video games. Make the choice of activity with the child, and ensure it is appropriate to the child's ability and confidence. Consider counselling and assess for eating disorders or other psychopathology to make sure the diet is appropriate for them. Tell them that this is not a long-term weight management strategy, and that regaining weight may happen and is not because of their own or their clinician's failure.

Discuss the reintroduction of food following a liquid diet with them. It is essential that any dietary recommendations are part of a multicomponent intervention. Changes should be sustainable. Make arrangements for appropriate healthcare professionals to offer information, support and counselling on additional diet, physical activity and behavioural strategies when drug treatment is prescribed.

Provide information on patient support programmes. Prescribing should be started and monitored only in specialist paediatric settings. Treatment should be started in a specialist paediatric setting, by multidisciplinary teams with experience of prescribing in this age group. Agree the goals with the person and review them regularly. See also recommendation 1.

Just as cats need a diet relatively high in protein, so they also need relatively high levels of fat compared to a human or dog.

Older cats may process fat less efficiently than younger cats, which may be a factor in weight loss. Fat does not result in a lot of waste products like protein, so processing it is not a strain on the kidneys; plus cholesterol is not an issue for cats the way it is for humans.

Studies indicate that cat foods containing even higher amounts of fat are safe. In most therapeutic kidney foods, the fat content is increased to compensate for the lower protein levels. Some senior cat foods also have relatively high levels of fat and relatively low levels of protein; as a bonus, they often also have low phosphorus levels.

Therefore, if your cat won't eat a therapeutic kidney diet, it is worth considering senior foods, although do check the protein level is not too low. The kidneys cannot process sodium as effectively in CKD, which increases the risk of hypertension high blood pressure in humans.

It used to be thought that the same applied to cats, and it was therefore recommended that sodium intake should be restricted. Research in Applied Veterinary Medicine 7 4 pp found that sodium intake appeared to have no effect on in blood pressure in CKD cats, but that levels of BUN, creatinine and phosphorus were higher in the cats eating a high sodium diet compared to those eating a low sodium diet.

Even in cats with creatinine over 1. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.

Effects of dietary salt intake on renal function: The study concludes "The results of this 2 year study do not support the suggestion that chronic increases in dietary salt intake are harmful to renal function in older cats.

Increased dietary sodium increases urine output and may decrease the risk of forming calcium oxalate uroliths due to the decrease in relative supersaturation of solutes. However, caution should be used in increasing the sodium intake of patients with renal disease as increased dietary sodium may have a negative effect on the kidneys independent of any effect on blood pressure.

So should you restrict sodium intake or not? Treatment recommendations for CKD in cats International Renal Interest Society states on page 5 that there is no evidence that reducing sodium intake is helpful for CKD cats, and that it should certainly not take the place of medication for hypertension , but if you do opt to reduce your cat's sodium intake, you should do it gradually. The food data tables provide information about the sodium content of many cat foods available in the USA and UK.

This occurs because potassium is easily lost through increased urination and vomiting. Therapeutic kidney diets contain extra potassium all cat foods need some potassium , and this is usually in the form of potassium citrate, because potassium citrate may help with a problem seen in some CKD cats called metabolic acidosis. If your cat refuses to eat a therapeutic diet, your vet can give you a potassium supplement instead, if appropriate; some cats need a potassium supplement whether or not they eat the therapeutic kidney diet.

Many commercial cat foods are acidified in order to reduce the risk of FLUTD feline lower urinary tract disease. These foods often say that they are designed to maintain urinary tract health; or they may contain cranberries or additional Vitamin C.

However, these foods which are actually designed to treat a different kind of problem to CKD may have the effect of increasing the amounts of potassium lost in the urine, which is bad for CKD cats. It is therefore best not to feed acidified foods to CKD cats, who tend to have quite high acid levels anyway. Please see the Potassium page for more information about potassium. It also states "Our analysis indicates that cats have a ceiling for carbohydrate intake, which limits ingestion and constrains them to deficits in protein and fat intake relative to their target on high-carbohydrate foods.

In The carnivore connection to nutrition in cats Zoran D Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association pp, Dr Zoran writes "It is clear that cats have a greater need than dogs or other omnivores for protein in their diet.

Cats also have several physiologic adaptations that reflect their expected low CHO [carbohydrate] intake These specific differences do not mean cats cannot use starch. In fact, cats are extremely efficient in their use of simple sugars.

However, it does underscore their development as carnivores and the expected low amounts of grain in their typical diet. These digestive differences may mean that high amounts of CHO in diets may have untoward effects on cats. Therefore, if you are trying to reduce your CKD cat's protein intake, I would recommend increasing the fat in the diet see above rather than the carbohydrates.

If you are feeding a therapeutic kidney diet, this will often be done automatically - many of these diets increase the fat content rather than the carbohydrates in order to offset the reduced protein content. Pet Education has an interesting article about carbohydrates in the feline diet.

Fibre is the non-digestible component of complex carbohydrate. It is important for good digestive health. Increased fibre may help with elevated calcium levels in the body hypercalcaemia , although one type of fibre, fructooligosaccharides or FOS, may actually increase calcium levels in the body see below. It may also assist with two commonly seen CKD problems, toxin reduction and the control of constipation. There are a number of ways of categorising fibre types, but one way is to divide it into fermentable and non-fermentable.

Which fibres are fermentable depends upon the species of bacteria eating the fibre in the cat's gastrointestinal tract. Diet and large intestinal disease in dogs and cats JW Simpson The Journal of Nutrition SS has a table showing soluble and fermentable fibres. In terms of general health, you do not necessarily want the most fermentable fibres. Dietary fiber for cats: It concludes that the diet "which contained the most fermentable fibers, severely decreased nutrient digestibility and resulted in poor stool characteristics.

Diets that contain moderately fermentable fiber provide fermentation end products that may be important in maintaining the health of the gastrointestinal tract of the cat. There has long been interest in whether other bodily mechanisms might be useful for relieving the load on damaged CKD kidneys. Bowel as a substitute in renal failure EA Friedman American Journal of Kidney Diseases 28 6 pp states "Extraction, modification, or recycling of nitrogenous wastes by the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially low-cost means of substituting for missing renal function.

Multiple approaches to the bowel as a substitute kidney have been attempted. One way of doing this may be via increased fibre intake in the form of fermentable fibre prebiotics. Fermentable fibre provides a source of carbohydrate for the bacteria in the gut.

These bacteria, which are essential to health, increase in number when provided with additional fermentable fibre, and the more bacteria there are, the more nitrogen is excreted in the faeces. This increased faecal excretion may help to reduce the load on the kidneys by diverting the excretion of urea from the kidneys.

You can read more about this in the Treatments chapter. Non-fermentable fibre can be helpful for CKD cats because it reduces the risk of constipation, a common problem in CKD cats, by holding water in the stool. Most commercial cat foods have sufficient levels of fibre for a healthy cat, but if your cat suffers from constipation you may wish to add more fibre in the form of something such as pumpkin, baby peas or psyllium. Please see Constipation for more information on dealing with constipation.

Feline Constipation explains more about fibre and gut health. Side Effects and Interactions. Some forms of fibre, such as fructooligosaccharides FOS , may also bind calcium in the small intestine and lead to an increase in calcium levels in the body hypercalcaemia.

This can be a problem for cats who already have high blood calcium levels. Inulin and guar gum may do this, as may slippery elm bark and lactulose , two treatments commonly used for constipation in CKD cats.

Fibre may also affect taurine levels in some foods. I would therefore recommend discussing additional fibre with your vet before adding it, and avoiding its use in a cat who already has high calcium levels.

They are essential because the cat's body cannot synthesise them in sufficient amounts, so they have to be obtained from food.

Commercial diets tend to contain far more Omega-6, partly because Omega-6 EFAs are cheaper and more stable, but this may create a potentially harmful imbalance. The correct balance is not yet known, though some believe it is probably around 5: Essential fatty acids are important for many bodily functions.

It has been known for many years that they have an effect on the skin - the first signs of an imbalance or deficiency are usually a dry coat, itchy skin or matted fur. Recently it appears that they may have an important role in controlling inflammation. Research in rats and humans indicates that the addition of omega-3 fatty acids to the diet may delay the progression of CKD. Small Animal Practice 38 1 pp added essential fatty acid supplements in the form of fish oil to dog foods.

It concludes "newer data indicate that dietary supplementation with specific antioxidants is an important consideration for limiting renal oxidant stress and progression of CKD. Nutritional management of renal disease: Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the form of fish oil can have beneficial effects in reducing GCP. This ties in with what one kidney specialist vet has informed me, that oversupplementation can throw off the correct ratio of Omega-3s to Omega-6s, and might be detrimental in some cases.

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for dogs and cats with heart disease Nutrition Service at Cummings Veterinary Medical Center at Tufts University states "Potential risk factors include decreased platelet function and coagulation, and possibly suppressed wound healing Other potential effects include soft feces, diarrhea, flatulence, vomiting, and halitosis.

Nutrition and renal function: At higher levels of supplementation, renal function was actually increased in normal cats. These data support the assertion that this dietary maneuver is safe for normal cats and provides some encouragement for further consideration for dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation in cats with renal disease, systemic hypertension, or hypersensitivity reactions. Almost everybody I know of who has added essential fatty acids to their cat's treatment plan, whether in a therapeutic kidney diet or as a supplement, has been happy with the results, reporting an improvement in general wellbeing.

Additional EFAs do cause vomiting in some cats though, and I've heard from a number of people whose cats had pancreatitis and who felt essential fatty acids did not agree with these cats, causing problems such as diarrhoea.

However, there are no reports of omega-3 fatty acid or fish oil supplements causing pancreatitis in dogs, cats, or humans. Theoretically, omega-3 fatty acids could prevent pancreatitis because of decreased blood triglyceride concentrations. An extremely high dosage of omega-3 fatty acids or a fish oil supplement in addition to a very high fat diet would likely be required to induce pancreatitis.

An increased level of essential fatty acids compared to standard cat foods is one of the features of therapeutic kidney diets. If you wish to give additional essential fatty acids, ask your vet if they are appropriate for your cat. Since cats as obligate carnivores benefit from animal-based products, the most appropriate form of essential fatty acid supplement is fish oil.

Oils from the liver, such as cod liver oil, are not suitable because they contain too much Vitamin A and D. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for dogs and cats with heart disease Nutrition Service at Cummings Veterinary Medical Center at Tufts University states "We also recommend avoiding cod liver oil for this purpose as it is too high in vitamins A and D when administered at this dose and can cause toxicity of these vitamins. If fish oils are given, extra vitamin E is also required in order to avoid a problem called steatitis.

Waltham International Symposium ppSS discusses this. Many products, especially veterinary ones, already contain vitamin E in an appropriate dosage it may be referred to as tocopherol , in which case you do not need to supplement Vitamin E.

However, I would ask your vet how much to give, because too much vitamin E can be dangerous. It has been on the market since January The manufacturer states that the product was tested on an informal basis on 18 CKD cats in the Montreal area over a period of about eight months. This product is basically a combination of essential fatty acids, Vitamin E which you need to add when you are supplementing fish oils, but which is also an antioxidant and CoQ10 ubiquinol , also an antioxidant, but in a concentrated formula.

You can read more about it in the Treatments chapter. Some people prefer to give krill oil to their cats because they find their cats tolerate it better. Krill oil is made from crustaceans rather than fish and contains additional antioxidants called astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. The essential fatty acids in krill oil are phospholipids in fish-based oils they are triglycerides.

This was due to increased urinary P excretion associated with the phospholipids content of these oils sources. Although further studies are needed, susceptible individuals should be aware of a potential risk of increasing phospholipids consumption on renal health.

Personally, I think I would be more comfortable using fish oil. If you are in Europe, especially Italy, you may be offered a new product called Nefrokrill, which contains potassium citrate , lanthanum carbonate a phosphorus binder and essential fatty acids. You can read more about it here. Vegetable-based oils , such as coconut oil or olive oil or flax seed linseed oil , are not recommended, because they do not contain the essential fatty acids which a cat needs.

Essential Fatty Acids Dosage. It can be a bit tricky working out an appropriate dose of essential fatty acids for cats. The National Research Council gives an upper limit for dogs but gives no upper limit for cats.

As far as fish oils are concerned, Pet MD discusses the dangers of giving too much but says that if you take the NRA recommendations for dogs, "Translating the data suggests that a dose between mg combined EPA and DHA per pound of body weight is safe for dogs and cats.

This dose is far less than those used to treat serious conditions where the risk of side effects is less important. Top 5 therapeutic uses of Omega-3 fatty acids Chandler ML Clinician's Brief Feb pp states "the amount to supplement is somewhat empiric and depends on the amount in the diet.

The higher dosages often are used to lower serum triglyceride concentrations in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, whereas lower dosages are more commonly used for inflammatory conditions, renal disease, and cardiac disease. There are a small number of commercial pet foods that contain this dose for example, the Royal Canin Early Cardiac Diet for Dogs.

However, in most cases, supplements are needed to achieve this dose. As you can see, there is no definitive dose, and many of the recommendations relate to a particular amount of EPA eicosapentaenoic acid. So if your cat weighs 8 lb 3. You will need to check the product you're considering to see how much EPA it contains. Many fish oil capsules are mg strength. I expect your head is spinning by now! Generally speaking, it is probably safe to give your cat one mg fish oil capsule daily.

Do check with your vet first though. Therapeutic kidney diets contain increased amounts of EFAs, so if your cat is eating such a food, you may not need additional supplementation, or may need a reduced dose.

The dosage for krill oil which is made from crustaceans rather than fish is mg per day. If you are using Nefrokrill, the dosage is here. Essential fatty acids are commonly available in either capsule form or in pump bottles.

Instead, mix the oil you can open the capsule with your cat's food. You don't have to give the daily dose in one amount, you can divide it between your cat's meals. Although most cats like fish, the oils can be a bit strong, and many cats dislike the smell.

Some cats may vomit after eating them. It is therefore wise to start off very slowly, just using one drop at first which you add to a smelly food that may disguise the taste, and gradually increase the dose over several days or even weeks. If your cat still hates it, you can either decant the oil into a gelcap, try finding a less smelly product, or discuss with your vet whether to continue with the supplement. Some members of my support group find krill oil is more acceptable to their cats.

It takes months to see the full effect of essential fatty acid supplements. If you think they help your cat, you should use them on an ongoing basis. If you don't see any difference, or if your cat seems to react badly to them e.

Essential fatty acids can easily go off they become rancid. Store them in the fridge, and be sure to sniff them before giving them to your cat.

Many people simply use human products, and in some cases they and their cat use the same one. If your cat doesn't like the brand you buy, you may need to shop around to find one that is acceptable.

Pet Education has a very helpful overview of essential fatty acids, with a comparison of various brands available in the USA. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for dogs and cats with heart disease Nutrition Service at Cummings Veterinary Medical Center at Tufts University recommends particular brands for cats and dogs with heart disease. Consumer Lab has a summary of its findings with regard to the quality of EFAs, including the names of some of the US products which met with its approval, but you need to be a member to read it.

Environmental Defense Fund has a table showing which brands remove contaminants from their products. Welactin is a veterinary product available in both softgel capsules and pump bottle. One pump contains approximately 1. You can often find it on Amazon but a couple of members of my support group have found it does not seem to last too well when purchasing it there.

For those in Canada, it is also available from Amazon Canada. Grizzly Salmon Oil is made from wild Alaskan salmon. Twinlab makes a krill oil product called Krill Essentials.

This is also available from other suppliers, such as Vitacost , among others. If you are in Canada, 60 softgels are available from Healthy Planet Canada.

A couple of members of my support group have found it does not seem to last too well when purchasing from Amazon in the USA but I have not had any complaints about buying it from Amazon UK.

Salmopet is a salmon-based fish oil which is widely available in Europe. Omega 6 oils which is not ideal. Your vet may also have a suitable product in stock. Amino acids are the components of protein. There are 23 amino acids which cats need, and they can manufacture twelve of these themselves, but the other eleven must be obtained from food.

The ones which the cat cannot manufacture are called essential amino acids. Taurine is one example of an amino acid which cats must obtain from food. Pet Education has a list of the essential amino acids for cats.

If you feed a commercial diet, it will contain the correct balance of amino acids for cats. However, if you feed homemade food, it is critical to ensure that the diet has the correct balance of amino acids. However, they concluded "the magnitude of these changes is mild and of little clinical relevance. Oral supplement of six selective amino acids arrests progression of renal failure in uremic patients Yatzidis H International Urology and Nephrology 36 4 pp found that amino acid supplements appeared to help human patients with glomerulonephritis.

An amino acid called L-lysine is sometimes recommended for cats with feline herpes. Two potential contraindications include renal and hepatic disease in which patients may have difficulty eliminating the large amounts of nitrogen generated from l-lysine metabolism. The signs of overweight and obesity include a high body mass index BMI and an unhealthy body fat distribution that can be estimated by measuring your waist circumference.

Obesity can cause complications in many parts of your body. Another sign of overweight and obesity is having an unhealthy body fat distribution. Fatty tissue is found in different parts of your body and has many functions.

An increased waist circumference is a sign of obesity and can increase your risk for obesity-related complications. Did you know inflammation is thought to play a role in the onset of certain obesity-related complications? Researchers now know more about visceral fat, which is deep in the abdomen of overweight and obese patients. Visceral fat releases factors that promote inflammation. More research is needed to understand what triggers inflammation in some obese patients and to find new treatments.

Your doctor may diagnose overweight and obesity based on your medical history, physical exams that confirm you have a high body mass index BMI and possibly a high waist circumference, and tests to rule out other medical conditions. To diagnose overweight and obesity, doctors measure BMI using calculations that depend on whether you are a child or an adult.

During your physical exam, your doctor will measure your weight and height to calculate your BMI. If you are of South Asian or Central and South American descent, your doctor may use smaller waist circumference values to diagnose your obesity. Treatment for overweight and obesity depends on the cause and severity of your condition. Possible treatments include healthy lifestyle changes, behavioral weight-loss treatment programs, medicines, and possibly surgery.

You may need treatments for any complications that you have. To help you aim for and maintain a healthy weight, your doctor may recommend that you adopt lifelong healthy lifestyle changes.

Making lifelong healthy lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating and physical activity, can help you modify your energy balance to help you aim for and maintain a healthy weight. Your doctor may recommend you enroll in individual or group behavioral weight-loss programs to treat your overweight and obesity.

In these programs, a trained healthcare professional will customize a weight-loss plan for you. This plan will include a moderately-reduced calorie diet, physical activity goals, and behavioral strategies to help you make and maintain these lifestyle changes. Researchers know that our brains can become patterned so that we feel pleasure or reward from eating. This can make us unconsciously crave food so our bodies feel that sense of pleasure.

It can also make it hard to change our eating patterns, lose weight, or maintain a healthy weight. Researchers are studying whether cognitive behavioral therapies can be an effective treatment for overweight and obesity by retraining the brain to not associate pleasure with food and the act of eating.

When healthy lifestyle changes are not enough, your doctor may treat your overweight and obesity with FDA-approved medicines. These medicines work in the following parts of your body. Weight loss medicines are not recommended as a single treatment for weight loss. These medicines can help you lose weight but when combined with lifestyle changes may result in greater weight loss.

Some of these medicines should not be used if you have certain conditions or are taking certain medicines. Also, these medicines have side effects. Talk to your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to get pregnant, breast feeding, or have a family history of cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke.

Some patients with obesity do not respond to healthy lifestyle changes and medicines. When these patients develop certain obesity-related complications, they may be eligible for the following surgeries. Talk to your doctor to learn more about the benefits and risks of each type of surgery.

Possible complications include bleeding, infection, internal rupture of sutures, or even death. Read gastric bypass surgery for more information. First, these surgeries reduce the amount of food stored in the stomach and the amount of calories your body can take in.

This can help your body restore energy balance. Second, these surgeries change the levels of certain hormones and the way the brain responds to these hormones to control hunger urges. After surgery, some people are less interested in eating or they prefer to eat healthier foods.

If you have been diagnosed with overweight and obesity, it is important that you continue your treatment. Read about tips to help you aim for a healthy weight, the benefit of finding and continuing a behavioral weight-loss program, and ways your doctor may monitor if your condition is stable, worsening, or improving and assess your risk for complications.

Changing lifestyle habits takes time and patience. Follow these tips to help you maintain the healthy lifestyle changes your doctor recommended to aim for a healthy weight.

Some people find it is easier to aim and maintain a healthy weight when they have support from a weight-loss specialist or other individuals who also are trying to lose weight. Behavioral weight-loss programs can provide this support, and they can help you set goals that are specific to your needs. Your weight-loss specialist usually reviews or modifies your goals every six months based on your progress and overall health. When you are choosing a behavioral weight-loss program, you may want to consider whether the program should:.

Your doctor may do any of the following to monitor your condition. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders including overweight and obesity. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and scientific discovery. Learn about the following ways NHLBI continues to translate research and science into improved health for people who are overweight or obese.

Learn about some of the pioneering research contributions we have made over the years that have improved clinical care. In support of our mission , we are committed to advancing overweight and obesity research in part through the following ways.

Learn more about participating in a clinical trial. View all trials from ClinicalTrials. Visit Children and Clinical Studies to hear experts, parents, and children talk about their experiences with clinical research.

After reading our overweight and obesity Health Topic, you may be interested in additional information found in the following resources. Also known as Adiposity. Overweight and obesity are increasingly common conditions in the United States. They are caused by the increase in the size and the amount of fat cells in the body. Doctors measure body mass index BMI and waist circumference to screen and diagnose overweight and obesity. Obesity is a serious medical condition that can cause complications such as metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, cancers and sleep disorders.

Treatment depends on the cause and severity of your condition and whether you have complications. Treatments include lifestyle changes, such as heart-healthy eating and increased physical activity, and Food and Drug Administration FDA -approved weight-loss medicines.

For some people, surgery may be a treatment option. Explore this Health Topic to learn more about overweight and obesity, our role in research and clinical trials to improve health, and where to find more information. Energy imbalances cause the body to store fat. Your body uses certain nutrients such as carbohydrates or sugars, proteins, and fats from the foods you eat to: Sugars are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. White fat tissue can be found around the kidneys and under the skin in the buttocks, thighs, and abdomen.

Brown fat tissue is located in the upper back area of human infants. This fat type releases stored energy as heat energy when a baby is cold. It also can make inflammatory substances. Brown fat can be seen in children and adults. Beige fat tissue is seen in the neck, shoulders, back, chest and abdomen of adults and resembles brown fat tissue. This fat type, which uses carbohydrates and fats to produce heat, increases when children and adults are exposed to cold.

Some genetic syndromes and endocrine disorders can cause overweight or obesity. Genetic syndromes Several genetic syndromes are associated with overweight and obesity, including the following.

Prader-Willi syndrome Bardet-Biedl syndrome Alström syndrome Cohen syndrome The study of these genetic syndromes has helped researchers understand obesity. People with this condition have low levels of thyroid hormones. People with hypothyroidism also produce less body heat, have a lower body temperature, and do not efficiently use stored fat for energy. People with this condition have high levels of glucocorticoids , such as cortisol , in the blood.

High cortisol levels make the body feel like it is under chronic stress. As a result, people have an increase in appetite and the body will store more fat. Some tumors, such as craneopharingioma, can cause severe obesity because the tumors develop near parts of the brain that control hunger.

Lack of physical activity Lack of physical activity due to high amounts of TV, computer, videogame or other screen usage has been associated with a high body mass index.

Unhealthy eating behaviors Some unhealthy eating behaviors can increase your risk for overweight and obesity. Eating more calories than you use. The amount of calories you need will vary based on your sex, age, and physical activity level.

Find out your daily calorie needs or goals with the Body Weight Planner. Eating too much saturated and trans fats Eating foods high in added sugars Visit Heart-healthy eating for more information about healthy eating patterns. Not enough sleep Many studies have seen a high BMI in people who do not get enough sleep. Many environmental factors can increase your risk for overweight and obesity: Family history and genetics. Screening for a high or increasing body mass index BMI.

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