Pseudoscorpions superficially resemble true scorpions, bearing relatively large chelae on the pedipalps, but they do not have a telson or stinger. Primary treatment consists of ultraviolet light UV for organic reduction, EDI and or mixed bed ion exchange for demineralization. The cyclopropyl fatty amide, grenadamide, was detected from the cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula Sitachitta N et al. The architecture of biofilm consists of two main components i. A trihydroxylated oxo-fatty acid, phaseolic acid 2-oxo-5,8,trihydroxydodecanoic acid was shown to stimulate elongation in pea stem segments Farmer EE, Plant Mol Biol , 26, They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any diseases. With our portable dewpoint analysis and proprietary design simulator, our technical service engineer can perform a breakthrough test on your mol sieve beds.
1. Joint Health
Phytopathology , , 36 , Contribution à la classification des bacteriacées phytopathogènes. Pseudomonas asuensis Reddy and Garcia-Pichel , sp. Description of Pseudomonas asuensis sp. Pseudomonas aurantiaca Nakhimovskaya , species. Mikrobiologiya , , 17 , Pseudomonas aureofaciens Kluyver , species. Journal of Bacteriology , , 72 , According to Johnson and Palleroni , Pseudomonas aureofaciens Kluyver Approved Lists is a later heterotypic synonym of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Guignard and Sauvageau Bergey et al.
Deoxyribonucleic acid similarities among Pseudomonas species. Pseudomonas avellanae Janse et al. Reclassification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. Pseudomonas avellanae was previously known as Pseudomonas syringae pv. Pseudomonas avenae Manns , species. Avena , genus of plants; N. The blade blight of oats, a bacterial disease.
Bulletin of the Ohio Agriculture Experiment Station , , , According to Hu et al. Numerical analysis and determinative tests for nonfluorescent plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. Minutes of the meetings, 3, 4 and 6 August , Istanbul, Turkey. Citrullus , a genus of melon plants; N. Pseudomonas azotifigens Hatayama et al. Pseudomonas azotoformans Iizuka and Komagata , species. New species of Pseudomonas belonged to fluorescent group Studies on the microorganisms of cereal grains.
Journal of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan , , 37 , Pseudomonas baetica López et al. Pseudomonas balearica Bennasar et al. Pseudomonas bauzanensis Zhang et al. Pseudomonas beijerinckii Hof , species. An investigation of the microorganisms commonly present in salted beans. Recueil des Travaux Botaniques Néerlandais , , 32 , According to Anzai et al. In , Peçonek et al. Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence. Reclassification of Pseudomonas beijerinckii Hof as Chromohalobacter beijerinckii comb.
Pseudomonas benzenivorans Lang et al. Ragunathan Savulescu , species. Bacterial leaf spot of betel. Necessary correction of specific epithets formed as substantives nouns "in apposition". So, with reference to the first Principle of the Bacteriological Code Revision , Kilian requested that the original name Pseudomonas betle be conserved . The Judicial Commission denied this request, and no Opinion will be issued upon this request .
Necessary changes of bacterial names? ASM News , , 64 , Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis , Streptococcus rattus , Streptococcus cricetus , and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names.
Request for an Opinion. Minutes of the meetings, 28, 29 and 31 July and 1 August , Paris, France. Original article by De Vos et al. According to the Bacteriological Code revision Pseudomonas hibiscicola and Xanthomonas maltophilia should be renamed Xanthomonas beteli because beteli is the oldest specific epithet.
The authors do not feel however the need to formally propose nomenclatural changes. Numerical analysis of phenotypic features of Xanthomonas strain and related strains and an improved taxonomy of the genus. Pseudomonas borbori Vanparys et al. Pseudomonas boreopolis Gray and Thornton , species. Soil bacteria that decompose certain aromatic compounds. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Parasitenkunde Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Abteilung II , , 73 , Pseudomonas brassicacearum Achouak et al. Subsequently, this species has been divided into subspecies see: The original authorship, Achouak et al.
Pseudomonas brenneri Baïda et al. Brenner, an American microbiologist, for his contributions to the taxonomy of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Legionellaceae. According to Rules 27 3 and 30, this name is not validly published because the effective publication only documents deposit of the type strain in a single recognized culture collection.
However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Pseudomonas brenneri Baïda et al. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 3 and 30 of the Bacteriological Code.
Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 3 and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Possible misidentification of species in the Pseudomonas fluorescens lineage as Burkholderia pseudomallei and Francisella tularensis , and emended descriptions of Pseudomonas brenneri , Pseudomonas gessardii and Pseudomonas proteolytica.
Pseudomonas caeni Xiao et al. Pseudomonas canadensis Tambong et al. Whole-genome sequence accession no.: Pseudomonas cannabina Gardan et al. List of Changes in Taxonomic Opinion no. Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena ex Sanjieva and Zavarzin Meyer et al.
Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena Sanjieva and Zavarzin comb. Pseudomonas caricapapayae Robbs , species. Uma nova doenca bacteriana do mamoeiro.
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Agronomia , , 12 , Pseudomonas caryophylli Burkholder Starr and Burkholder , species. Three bacterial plant pathogens, Phytomonas caryophylli , sp. Phytopathology , , 32 , Lipolytic activity of phytopathogenic bacteria determined by means of spirit blue agar and its taxonomic significance. Pseudomonas caspiana Busquets et al.
List of novel names and novel combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. Pseudomonas cattleyae Pavarino Savulescu , species. Cattleya , a genus of orchids; N. Malattie causate da bacteri nelle orchidee. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei , , 20 , Because the type strain of Pseudomonas cattleyae Pavarino Savulescu Approved Lists is allocated to Pseudomonas avenae subsp.
Taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from Lebanese spring waters: However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Pseudomonas cedrina corrig.
The original authorship, Dabboussi et al. Pseudomonas cepacia ex Burkholder Palleroni and Holmes , sp. Pseudomonas cerasi Kaluzna et al. Pseudomonas chengduensis Tao et al. Pseudomonas chloritidismutans Wolterink et al. According to Cladera et al. Genotype versus phenotype in the circumscription of bacterial species: Pseudomonas chlororaphis Guignard and Sauvageau Bergey et al. Sur un nouveau microbe chromogène, le Bacillus chloroaphis.
Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 3rd ed. Reclassification of Pseudomonas aurantiaca as a synonym of Pseudomonas chlororaphis and proposal of three subspecies, P. In the paper by Peix et al. The original authorship, Guignard and Sauvageau Bergey et al. Pseudomonas cichorii Swingle Stapp , species. Center rot of "french endive" or wilt of chicory Cichorium intybos L.
Phytopathology , , 15 , Abstr. Pseudomonas cissicola Takimoto Burkholder , species. Cissus , generic name of flowering plant; L. Bacterial leaf spot of Cissus japonica Willd. Annals of the Phytopathological Society , Japan , , 9 , Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed.
These errors have caused considerable confusion in the taxonomic placement of Pseudomonas cissicola. Taxonomic confusion of Pseudomonas cissicola originated from mislabeling by International Type Culture Collections. Transfer of Pseudomonas cissicola Takimoto Burkholder to the genus Xanthomonas. However, it is not appropriate to propose the new combination Xanthomonas cissicola without investigating more extensively the genomic and phenotypic characteristics. Pseudomonas citronellolis Seubert , species.
Degradation of isoprenoid compounds by microorganisms. Isolation and characterization of an isoprenoid-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas citronellolis n. Journal of Bacteriology , , 79 , Characterization of ' Pseudomonas azelaica ' DSM , leading to emended descriptions of Pseudomonas citronellolis Seubert Approved Lists and Pseudomonas nitroreducens Iizuka and Komagata Approved Lists , including Pseudomonas multiresinivorans as its later heterotypic synonym.
Pseudomonas cocovenenans van Damme et al. Cocos , genus of coconut; L. On toxoflavin, the yellow poison of Pseudomonas cocovenenans. Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas , , 79 , Pseudomonas coleopterorum Menéndez et al. Pseudomonas composti Gibello et al.
Pseudomonas congelans Behrendt et al. Fluorescent pseudomonads associated with the phyllosphere of grasses; Pseudomonas trivialis sp. Pseudomonas corrugata Roberts and Scarlett , sp. Tomato pith necrosis caused by Pseudomonas corrugata n.
Taxonomy of Pseudomonas strains isolated from tomato pith necrosis: Pseudomonas costantinii Munsch et al. The specific epithet, costantinii , is a N. Pseudomonas cremoricolorata Uchino et al. Recharacterization of Pseudomonas fulva Iizuka and Komagata , and proposals of Pseudomonas parafulva sp. However, according to the Judicial Opinion 81, Pseudomonas cremoricolorata Uchino et al. Pseudomonas cuatrocienegasensis Escalante et al.
Pseudomonas deceptionensis Carrión et al. Pseudomonas delafieldii Davis , species. Delafield, who first isolated this organism. Taxonomic studies on some Gram-negative polarly flagellated "hydrogen bacteria" and related species.
Archiv fur Mikrobiologie , , 70 , Pseudomonas delhiensis Prakash et al. Pseudomonas diminuta Leifson and Hugh , species. A new type of polar monotrichous flagellation. Journal of General Microbiology , , 10 , Pseudomonas donghuensis Gao et al.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , , Pseudomonas doudoroffii Baumann et al. Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria. Journal of Bacteriology , , , Pseudomonas duriflava Liu et al. Pseudomonas echinoides Heumann , species. Die Methodik der Kreuzung sternbildender Bakterien. Biolgisches Zentralblatt , , 81 , Pseudomonas elongata Humm , species.
Marine agar-digesting bacteria of the South Atlantic coast. Bulletin of Duke University Marine Station , , 3 , Pseudomonas endophytica Ramírez-Bahena et al. Pseudomonas entomophila Mulet et al. Taxonomic characterisation of Pseudomonas strain L48 and formal proposal of Pseudomonas entomophila sp.
Pseudomonas extremaustralis López et al. In the abstract of the effective publication, the strain CT is cited as Pseudomonas extremorientalis Ivanova et al. Pseudomonas facilis Schatz and Bovell Davis , species. Growth and hydrogenase activity of a new bacterium, Hydrogenomonas facilis.
Journal of Bacteriology , , 63 , Proposal to reject the genus Hydrogenomonas: International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology , , 19 , Pseudomonas ficuserectae Goto , sp. Pseudomonas flava Niklewski Davis , species. Über die wasserstoffoxydation durch Mikroorganismen.
Jahrbuch fur Wissenschaftliche Botanik , , 48 , Pseudomonas flavescens Hildebrand et al. Pseudomonas flectens Johnson , species. A previously unrecorded bacterial disease of French bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science , , 13 , Pseudomonas flectens Johnson Approved Lists is not considered to be a member of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid cistron similarities of phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species.
Pseudomonas flexibilis Shin et al. Reclassification of Serpens flexibilis Hespell as Pseudomonas flexibilis comb. Pseudomonas floridensis Timilsina et al.
Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula , species. Die Naturlichen Pfanzenfamilien, W. Pseudomonas fluvialis Sudan et al. Pseudomonas formosensis Lin et al. Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis Andersen et al. Pseudomonas fulva Iizuka and Komagata , species. Pseudomonas furukawaii Kimura et al.
Pseudomonas fuscovaginae ex Tanii et al. Pseudomonas gelidicola Kadota , species. Studies on the biochemical activities of marine bacteria. On the agar-decomposing bacteria in the sea. Memoirs of the College of Science , Kyoto University , , 59 , Personal communication March 04, Pseudomonas geniculata Wright Chester , species. Report on the results of an examination of the water supply of Philadelphia. Memoirs of the National Academy of Science , , 7 , A Manual of Determinative Bacteriology.
Pseudomonas gessardii Verhille et al. Fundamentally these solar pumps are the same but instead of operating only when sunlight hits the solar panels they have the ability to charge deep cell batteries during the sunny hours of the day and can operate the pump during times when there is no light which is often preferable as aeration systems an their best will function only during the evening hours when their is no chance for aquatic plants to contribute oxygen due to photosynthesis.
Parts would Include the following: You must accept that creating and building and setting up a solar aeration system is a very very VERY complicated affair and while we are offering the parts and instructions on how to build your system we cannot provide ANY help or installation guides. If you wish to have a simple, turn-key system then please contact someone else as we are unable to privide any help beyond this list of products and parts.
Any failure of the system to function as expressed, implied or as desired is not gauranteed. Solar aeration systems are a very touchy and persnickety project so if you wish to buy or purchase from us then please do so at your own risk. We have provided a list of parts and instructions but do not imply or warranty that this will actually work! Beyond the need for aeration I am also asked constantly about solar pumps for fountains. Most floating mountains or even fixed base submersible fountains require large horsepower pumps to drive thick columns of water through brass nozzles to create dramatic effects and to create a large display such as a crown and geyser display using a solar pump is not financially feasible.
Of course there are pumps that can be simply placed into a pond or dugout and with the addition of a brass fountain nozzle can create dramatic displays of height but the limitations of amperage inherent in solar pumps means that only smaller water bodies like water gardens can even entertain the concept of a solar fountain.
Solar fountains just don't have the power to push water beyond more than a few feet above the water level unless they are large scale and typically expensive systems. Even when I visit a eutrophic pond in need of major treatment I inevitably come upon the question of solar systems designed to power cottages or country homes.
There are cottage and complete solar systems that retailers create that include homemade packaged photovoltaic power systems from 50 to over watts that are perfect for providing full power for small cottages and vacation homes.
These store bought systems usually come complete with cutting edge solar modules, controllers, mounting hardware, batteries, wiring and installation guides. Basically all you need is a few basic tools and a few hours to build your solar installation.
Most of these systems are expandable especially if you consult a local solar dealer for tips and ideas on building a do it yourself solar system!
You can always add on more solar modules at a later time or improve your system with a windmill or a micro-hydro turbine if you have running water on your property.
If you are thinking of adding more solar modules in the future it may be wise to select a pole-mounting structure capable of holding additional solar panels and choosing a voltage controller capable of handling the additional power. There are standby-grid-tie systems that not only allow you to feed power back to the grid, but it will also offer you the security of back-up power in the event of a power failure. During sunny days the solar array mounted on your roof for example, will feed extra electrical power back to the utility grid.
In many provinces and states you may be able to sell your excess electricity to them via the hydro electric lines. During a blackout or major ice storm or even a terrorist attack the systems deep cell battery bank will provide you with the electricity to run multiple loads including furnaces, refrigerators, lighting, computers, televisions and phones for homes cottages and small businesses. Where can solar aeration be used?
Most Solar aeration systems are custom-built for ponds and lakes when AC power or an air line from a AC powered system is not practical. The Solar panels can be designed and sized easily to supply power to a water pump or a combination bubbler and water pump. Designing a solar aeration system Designing a solar powered system can be done quite easily. For example, a pond of 2,, litres or gallons can be properly aerated with a minimum of 0.
Again, the limitations of the DC compressor are the key variable. For proper solar system design, the compressor size and combined power requirements should be calculated for correct aeration.
Once these mathematics are calculated, the precise number of solar panels, wattage and batteries can be determined and implemented. I have designed a standard indication showing the approximate component costs for a solar powered aeration system. The following formula is often used to determine the number of solar panels required. To determine the number of panels using the formula, the following is calculated. This assumes use of watt panels, which produce 64 watts x 6 hrs Watt-hrs per day.
When installing a solar powered aeration or watering system, one should determine the number of batteries needed or calculate how much deep charge battery power is required during cloudy periods or if the panels are disconnected.
This calculation will depend largely on how often the system is inspected and I recommend a battery storage capacity of three to five days. In this generic example, if four days of storage are required and a six-volt amp hour battery is being used, then you should calculate the number of batteries needed using the following formula: I recommend using six volt batteries because they provide the best storage life. For a volt system, the batteries must be used in increments of two in series equaling 12 volts; and for a volt system, increments of four in series that equal 24 volts are required.
Some interesting links on solar power and solar aeration: Phellonic acic , hydroxydocosanoic acid, was also detected in cork suberin. Several studies led to tentative models of cutin based on the inter-esterification of w-hydroxyacids, both head-to-tail in a linear form , and cross-linked via the secondary hydroxyls.
In some plant species cutin, carbon dihydroxy and carbon trihydroxyacids were detected Graca J et al. Moreover, these diacids C16, C18, C A trihydroxylated oxo-fatty acid, phaseolic acid 2-oxo-5,8,trihydroxydodecanoic acid was shown to stimulate elongation in pea stem segments Farmer EE, Plant Mol Biol , 26, This compounds is reminiscent of animal lipoxins.
The 9,10,trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid phloionolic acid was isolated from the seed oil of Chamaepeuce afra Mikolajczak KL et al. A monounsaturated derivative of phloionolic acid was also detected in some seed oil. Higher plant cutin and suberin can also be a significant source of esterified CC22 a-, b-, and w-monohydroxy and C16 and C18 polyhydroxylated fatty acids in sediments Cardoso JN et al.
Estolides are dimers formed by a normal fatty acid esterifying a hydroxy fatty acid. They are found mainly in some special triglycerides where they acylate the sn-3 position and formed estolide tetraester triglyceride.
They are found in seed oil from Euphorbiaceae. A hydroxy allenic acid 8-hydroxy-5,6-octadienoic acid was described in an estolide from Sebastiana commersoniana Spitzer V.
Lipids , 32, The w-hydroxyl group was shown to be acylated by a conjugated diene with 10 carbon atoms. The allenic acid was shown to have antifungal properties Ohigashi H et al Agr Biol Chem , 36, , the triglyceride being not recommended for animal diet. Original estolides, named mayolenes, have been isolated from the glandular hairs of a caterpillar Pieris rapae Smedley SR et al.
These estolides are formed by a hydroxylinolenic acid esterified by a saturated fatty acid CC Bioassays demonstrated that they are potent deterrent, playing a defensive role against predators.
Lipidomic analysis of mouse adipose tissue revealed the existence of estolides that were elevated to fold in these mice. Several isomers differ by the branched ester position on the hydroxy fatty acid e.
These estolides are synthesized in vivo and regulated by fasting and high-fat feeding. Their level correlates highly with insulin sensitivity and are reduced in adipose tissue and serum of insulin-resistant humans, These compounds could have the potential to treat type 2 diabetes Yore MM et al. Besides classical wax esters, the secretions of the human Meibomius glands meibum which are mixed with tears, contain estolides based on a w -hydroxylated fatty acid mainly from 30 to 34 carbons acylated on the terminal hydroxyl by oleic acid Due to their amphiphilic anionogenic nature, these compounds may be responsible for stabilization of the tear film lipid layer.
Industrially, estolides are now synthesized from vegetal oils and are used as ingredients in various industrial fields. Thus, these new functional fluids have a rapidly growing importance in cosmetics, coatings, and biodegradable lubricants. They are largely synthesized from oleic acid warmed with perchloric or sulfuric acid Cermak SC et al.
JAOCS , 78, The average number of fatty acid units added to the first base fatty acid named "estolide number" varied as a function of reaction temperature. The secondary ester linkages are more resistant to hydrolysis than those of triglycerides, and the unique structure of the estolide results in materials having far superior physical properties than mineral oils and vegetable and petroleum-based oils.
They are said to improve intra-fiber moisture retention, to restore elasticity, and prevent mechanical damage. In skin care systems, they provide significant moisturization benefits.
Estolides made from vegetal oils have a good oxidative stability and low-temperature properties. Oxidative stability may be improved in removing the unsaturation of oleic acid and the low-temperature performance may be improved in using oleic acid and various short or middle-chain saturated fatty acids lauric or myristic acid, coconut oil. Other chemical developments are in progress to obtain molecules with required functional fluid conditions Cermak S et al.
A kind of estolide has been described in the stem bark of an Euphorbiaceae Alchorena laxiflora , a plant used in Africa to treat some diseases Sandjo LP et al.
That compound is formed of a C14 fatty acid with a double bond in the n-3 position esterified with a hydroxylated propionic acid. Macrolactins are macrolides containing three separate diene structure elements in a membered lactone ring which were first reported to be produced by several marine bacteria Gustafson K et al.
Several macrolactin structures have been described in marine bacteria, the simplest one macrolactin A is shown below. These antibiotics may be considered equivalent to a tetrahydroxylated tetracosaenoic acid with an ester bond between the carboxyl group and one of the hydroxyl groups lactone structure.
They are considered to be potent antiviral against herpes and HIV and cytotoxic against melanoma agents that also have antibacterial activity. It was suggested that the hydroxyl group at C may play an important role in the antibacterial activity of these compounds. There is yet no information about the mechanism of action of this group of compounds. Parcoblattalactone is a macrocyclic lactone deriving from a carbon fatty acid hydroxylated in position w. This compound is a sex pheromone of the insect Parcoblatta lata , which represents the most abundant arthropod biomass in the pine forests of the southeastern United States Eliyahu D et al.
This pheromone will be used for monitoring populations of insects that comprise an important food source for endangered bird species. Lipoxygenase activities give rise to important hydroxylated derivatives mainly from polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Thus, lipoxygenation of The monohydroxy derivatives consist of the positional isomers 5-hydroxy The dihydroxy derivatives include products arising from 5- or lipoxygenation. In addition to In leucocytes neutrophiles , hydroxy It appears to be also produced by vascular endothelial cells where it prevents platelet attachment and has vasoconstrictor activity.
It has been shown that Allium species onion and garlic which are known as folk medicine for the treatment of atherosclerosis and some ulcers, were shown to be rich in two trihydroxylated derivatives of Furthermore, it was shown that these products have PGE-like activity in in vitro bio-assay tests Claeys M et al. Similar products were isolated from roots of Bryone ala , used also for similar medicinal purposes as onion Panossian AG et al. A review of their formation and function in blood and vascular cells may be consulted Lagarde M, Eur J Lipid Sci Technol , , A critical overview on the dihydroxy-docosatrienes may be also consulted Balas L et al.
Biosynthetic pathways and structures of resolvins, protectins, and maresins generated enzymatically from DHA. Thus, lipidomic analysis of exudates, vascular, leukocytes and neural cells treated with aspirin have revealed hat DHA was converted into 17R-hydroxy series of dihydroxy- and trihydroxy-docosanoids termed " resolvins " D-series.
They are formed during the resolution phase of acute inflammatory response and are able to counter proinflammation signals Serhan CN et al. The metabolism and pharmacological functions of these resolvins have been reviewed Serhan CN et al. On another hand, brain ischemia was shown to induce a release of DHA from membrane phospholipids which then generates via enzymatic oxygenations novel derivatives named " docosatrienes ".
These dihydroxy-containing DHA derivatives were termed " neuroprotectins ". The main member of the series was 10,17S-docosatriene neuroprotectin D1 which was proved to be a potent regulator of inflammation Marcheselli VL et al.
Several isomers of protectin D1 were synthesized using soybean lipoxygenase and tested for their ability to inhibit human blood platelet aggregation. It was discovered that the oxygenated products having the E,Z,E-conjugated triene motif and collectively named poxytrins PUFA oxygenated trienes , might have potent antithrombotic potential Chen P et al.
The biosynthetic pathway of that DHA derivative in retinal pigment cells and its protective effects from apoptosis induced by an oxidative stress were reported Mukherjee PK et al. These compounds may be the basis of new therapeutic approaches to enhance photoreceptor survival in retinal degenerations. A review of the rescue and repair processes during photoreceptor cell renewal mediated by neuroprotectin D1 may be consulted Bazan NG et al.
Some isomers exhibiting the 11t,13c,15t geometry, instead of 11t,13t,15c as in protectin D1 poxytrins family , are able to inhibit strongly blood platelet aggregation Chen P et al. Besides 10,17S-docosatriene, the analogue compound 7,17S-docosatriene was shown to be produced during aerobic oxidation of DHA by soybean lipoxygenase Butovich IA et al.
Enzymatic investigations suggest that these compounds might have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, which could be exerted, at least in part, through direct inhibition of 5- and 15 lipoxygenase.
An overview of their role in brain physiology and a discussion on the potential of using DHA signaling in the development of treatments in patients suffering from stroke have been released by Niemoller TD et al. Prost Lipid Mediat , 91, One neuroprotectin and several resolvins have been shown to be biosynthesized by isolated trout brain cells providing the first evidence for the conservation of these structures from fish to humans as chemical signals in diverse biological systems Hong S et al.
Prost Lipid Mediat , 78, Maresin 1 7,dihydroxydocosa-4 Z ,8,10,12,16 Z ,19 Z -hexaenoic acid is a new lipoxygenase product from DHA produced in macrophages. It appears as potent as neuroprotectin D1 in its anti-inflammatory activity Serhan C N et al. Vascular endothelial cells treated with aspirin was shown to convert eicosapentaenoic acid EPA into an intermediate product which gives a bioactive compound 5,12,18R-trihydroxy-EPE resolvin E1. New resolvins derived from docosapentaenoic acid of the n-6 family These products resulting from lipoxygenase activity were determined to be potent anti-inflammatory agents.
A comprehensive review of the metabolism and properties of resolvins, docosatrienes and neuroprotectins may be consulted Serhan CN et al. An overview of their synthesis and their biological significance have been reviewed Balas L et al. A review of the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids and their oxygenated or hydoxylated metabolites in the blood vessel compartment may also be consulted Lagarde M et al.
Hypoxilins , hydroxy-epoxy derivatives of arachidonic acid are described with lipoxygenase products. They can have a variable number of carbon atoms and the sulfur atom in different position 3-thia or 4-thia.
The most commonly 3-thia fatty acids studied are presently: Isomeric epithio stearic acids have been described as minor constituents in canola oil. They were tentatively identified were the 9,12; 8,11; and 7,10 epithio stearic acids Wijesundera RC et al. The general formula is given below. New fatty acid derivatives have been isolated from the regurgitant of the grasshopper species Schistocerca americana.
These compounds named caeliferins are composed of saturated and monounsaturated sulfated a-hydroxy fatty acids in which the w-carbon is substituted with a sulfated hydroxyl group Alborn HT et al.
Of these, the Fatty acid amides are natural products formed by connecting straight-chain, mostly unsaturated, aliphatic acids with various amines by an amide linkage. More than derivatives are known from eight plant families consisting of various combinations of acids with 23 amines. These compounds are found in nature, but are seldom encountered in fats and oils.
As many other nitrogen derivatives of fatty acids amino acids, hydrazides, acid azides, nitriles, isocyanates, amines , they are of considerable interest and economic importance and have, therefore, been the object of much research and industrial attention mainly in the 50s. They are now produced on a large scale, their chemical features resulting in high surface activities. These compounds are useful as fiber lubricants, detergents, flotation agents, textile softeners, antistatic agents, wax additives, and plasticizers but some of them have also specific biological functions.
Various data of specific molecules can be searched for their origin and their physicochemical properties. They also act as plant growth-promoting substances. Some of them possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and are responsible for immunomodulatory and cannabinomimetic effects review in: Greger H, Phytochem Rev , 15, They can also be produced from plant erucic acid treated with ammonia.
These compound have a broad spectrum of uses, e. Simple amides of fatty acids alkylamides were shown to be very potent bio-effectors. For example, in chicken chorioallantoid membrane and rat cornea, it was shown that amide of cis-docosenoic acid erucamide discovered in the bovine mesentery is an angiogenic factor Wakamatsu K et al. Angiogenic activity induction of capillary development was demonstrated by synthetic primary amides of t-docosenoic acid, The amide of 9-octadecenoic acid oleamide was isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats.
This compound is recognized now to be the endogenous factor inducing sleep in mammals Cravatt, B F et al. It seems that oleamide may have many other physiological functions, including thermoregulation and sensitivity to pain.