Orthoclase feldspar KAlSi 3 O 8 is a mineral commonly found in granite , a plutonic igneous rock. This is a subtle distinction, but it's an important one. Once opened, unused ready-to-feed formula or concentrate formula should be refrigerated and used within 48 hours. In one systematic review of observational studies, researchers have found an association between dietary fiber intake and lower risk of cardiovascular disease, and further an association between the intake of insoluble fiber, fiber from cereals and vegetables and lower risk of coronary heart disease . Translated, that means the person is consuming 35 milliliters of oxygen for every kilogram of body weight per minute. Types of waste Generally, waste could be liquid or solid waste.
Amount of Alcohol in Alcoholic Beverages: Units
Classifying minerals ranges from simple to difficult. A mineral can be identified by several physical properties, some of them being sufficient for full identification without equivocation. In other cases, minerals can only be classified by more complex optical , chemical or X-ray diffraction analysis; these methods, however, can be costly and time-consuming.
Physical properties applied for classification include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, cleavage and fracture, and specific gravity.
Other less general tests include fluorescence , phosphorescence , magnetism , radioactivity , tenacity response to mechanical induced changes of shape or form , piezoelectricity and reactivity to dilute acids.
Crystal structure results from the orderly geometric spatial arrangement of atoms in the internal structure of a mineral. This crystal structure is based on regular internal atomic or ionic arrangement that is often expressed in the geometric form that the crystal takes. Even when the mineral grains are too small to see or are irregularly shaped, the underlying crystal structure is always periodic and can be determined by X-ray diffraction. Crystals are restricted to 32 point groups , which differ by their symmetry.
These groups are classified in turn into more broad categories, the most encompassing of these being the six crystal families. These families can be described by the relative lengths of the three crystallographic axes, and the angles between them; these relationships correspond to the symmetry operations that define the narrower point groups.
The hexagonal crystal family is also split into two crystal systems — the trigonal , which has a three-fold axis of symmetry, and the hexagonal, which has a six-fold axis of symmetry. Chemistry and crystal structure together define a mineral. With a restriction to 32 point groups, minerals of different chemistry may have identical crystal structure. For example, halite NaCl , galena PbS , and periclase MgO all belong to the hexaoctahedral point group isometric family , as they have a similar stoichiometry between their different constituent elements.
In contrast, polymorphs are groupings of minerals that share a chemical formula but have a different structure. For example, pyrite and marcasite , both iron sulfides, have the formula FeS 2 ; however, the former is isometric while the latter is orthorhombic.
This polymorphism extends to other sulfides with the generic AX 2 formula; these two groups are collectively known as the pyrite and marcasite groups. Polymorphism can extend beyond pure symmetry content. The aluminosilicates are a group of three minerals — kyanite , andalusite , and sillimanite — which share the chemical formula Al 2 SiO 5. Kyanite is triclinic, while andalusite and sillimanite are both orthorhombic and belong to the dipyramidal point group.
These differences arise corresponding to how aluminium is coordinated within the crystal structure. In all minerals, one aluminium ion is always in six-fold coordination with oxygen. Silicon, as a general rule, is in four-fold coordination in all minerals; an exception is a case like stishovite SiO 2 , an ultra-high pressure quartz polymorph with rutile structure.
Andalusite has the second aluminium in five-fold coordination Al  Al  SiO 5 and sillimanite has it in four-fold coordination Al  Al  SiO 5.
Differences in crystal structure and chemistry greatly influence other physical properties of the mineral. The carbon allotropes diamond and graphite have vastly different properties; diamond is the hardest natural substance, has an adamantine lustre, and belongs to the isometric crystal family, whereas graphite is very soft, has a greasy lustre, and crystallises in the hexagonal family.
This difference is accounted for by differences in bonding. In diamond, the carbons are in sp 3 hybrid orbitals, which means they form a framework where each carbon is covalently bonded to four neighbours in a tetrahedral fashion; on the other hand, graphite is composed of sheets of carbons in sp 2 hybrid orbitals, where each carbon is bonded covalently to only three others.
These sheets are held together by much weaker van der Waals forces , and this discrepancy translates to large macroscopic differences. Twinning is the intergrowth of two or more crystals of a single mineral species. The geometry of the twinning is controlled by the mineral's symmetry. As a result, there are several types of twins, including contact twins, reticulated twins, geniculated twins, penetration twins, cyclic twins, and polysynthetic twins. Contact, or simple twins, consist of two crystals joined at a plane; this type of twinning is common in spinel.
Reticulated twins, common in rutile, are interlocking crystals resembling netting. Geniculated twins have a bend in the middle that is caused by start of the twin. Penetration twins consist of two single crystals that have grown into each other; examples of this twinning include cross-shaped staurolite twins and Carlsbad twinning in orthoclase. Cyclic twins are caused by repeated twinning around a rotation axis. This type of twinning occurs around three, four, five, six, or eight-fold axes, and the corresponding patterns are called threelings, fourlings, fivelings, sixlings, and eightlings.
Sixlings are common in aragonite. Polysynthetic twins are similar to cyclic twins through the presence of repetitive twinning; however, instead of occurring around a rotational axis, polysynthetic twinning occurs along parallel planes, usually on a microscopic scale.
Crystal habit refers to the overall shape of crystal. Several terms are used to describe this property. Common habits include acicular, which describes needlelike crystals as in natrolite , bladed, dendritic tree-pattern, common in native copper , equant, which is typical of garnet, prismatic elongated in one direction , and tabular, which differs from bladed habit in that the former is platy whereas the latter has a defined elongation. Related to crystal form, the quality of crystal faces is diagnostic of some minerals, especially with a petrographic microscope.
Euhedral crystals have a defined external shape, while anhedral crystals do not; those intermediate forms are termed subhedral. The hardness of a mineral defines how much it can resist scratching. This physical property is controlled by the chemical composition and crystalline structure of a mineral. A mineral's hardness is not necessarily constant for all sides, which is a function of its structure; crystallographic weakness renders some directions softer than others.
The most common scale of measurement is the ordinal Mohs hardness scale. Defined by ten indicators, a mineral with a higher index scratches those below it. The scale ranges from talc, a phyllosilicate , to diamond, a carbon polymorph that is the hardest natural material. The scale is provided below: Lustre indicates how light reflects from the mineral's surface, with regards to its quality and intensity.
There are numerous qualitative terms used to describe this property, which are split into metallic and non-metallic categories. Metallic and sub-metallic minerals have high reflectivity like metal; examples of minerals with this lustre are galena and pyrite.
The diaphaneity of a mineral describes the ability of light to pass through it. Transparent minerals do not diminish the intensity of light passing through them. An example of a transparent mineral is muscovite potassium mica ; some varieties are sufficiently clear to have been used for windows. Translucent minerals allow some light to pass, but less than those that are transparent. Jadeite and nephrite mineral forms of jade are examples of minerals with this property. Minerals that do not allow light to pass are called opaque.
The diaphaneity of a mineral depends on the thickness of the sample. When a mineral is sufficiently thin e. In contrast, some minerals, such as hematite or pyrite, are opaque even in thin-section. Colour is the most obvious property of a mineral, but it is often non-diagnostic. Idiochromatic elements are essential to a mineral's composition; their contribution to a mineral's colour is diagnostic.
In contrast, allochromatic elements in minerals are present in trace amounts as impurities. An example of such a mineral would be the ruby and sapphire varieties of the mineral corundum. Examples include labradorite and bornite.
In addition to simple body colour, minerals can have various other distinctive optical properties, such as play of colours, asterism , chatoyancy , iridescence , tarnish, and pleochroism. Several of these properties involve variability in colour.
Play of colour, such as in opal , results in the sample reflecting different colours as it is turned, while pleochroism describes the change in colour as light passes through a mineral in a different orientation.
Iridescence is a variety of the play of colours where light scatters off a coating on the surface of crystal, cleavage planes, or off layers having minor gradations in chemistry. The latter property is particularly common in gem-quality corundum.
The streak of a mineral refers to the colour of a mineral in powdered form, which may or may not be identical to its body colour. The streak of a mineral is independent of trace elements  or any weathering surface. By definition, minerals have a characteristic atomic arrangement. Weakness in this crystalline structure causes planes of weakness, and the breakage of a mineral along such planes is termed cleavage. The quality of cleavage can be described based on how cleanly and easily the mineral breaks; common descriptors, in order of decreasing quality, are "perfect", "good", "distinct", and "poor".
In particularly transparent minerals, or in thin-section, cleavage can be seen as a series of parallel lines marking the planar surfaces when viewed from the side. Cleavage is not a universal property among minerals; for example, quartz, consisting of extensively interconnected silica tetrahedra, does not have a crystallographic weakness which would allow it to cleave. In contrast, micas, which have perfect basal cleavage, consist of sheets of silica tetrahedra which are very weakly held together.
As cleavage is a function of crystallography, there are a variety of cleavage types. Cleavage occurs typically in either one, two, three, four, or six directions. Basal cleavage in one direction is a distinctive property of the micas. Two-directional cleavage is described as prismatic, and occurs in minerals such as the amphiboles and pyroxenes.
Octahedral cleavage four directions is present in fluorite and diamond, and sphalerite has six-directional dodecahedral cleavage. Minerals with many cleavages might not break equally well in all of the directions; for example, calcite has good cleavage in three directions, but gypsum has perfect cleavage in one direction, and poor cleavage in two other directions. Angles between cleavage planes vary between minerals. For example, as the amphiboles are double-chain silicates and the pyroxenes are single-chain silicates, the angle between their cleavage planes is different.
The cleavage angles can be measured with a contact goniometer, which is similar to a protractor. Parting, sometimes called "false cleavage", is similar in appearance to cleavage but is instead produced by structural defects in the mineral, as opposed to systematic weakness. Parting varies from crystal to crystal of a mineral, whereas all crystals of a given mineral will cleave if the atomic structure allows for that property.
In general, parting is caused by some stress applied to a crystal. The sources of the stresses include deformation e. Minerals that often display parting include the pyroxenes, hematite, magnetite, and corundum. When a mineral is broken in a direction that does not correspond to a plane of cleavage, it is termed to have been fractured.
There are several types of uneven fracture. The classic example is conchoidal fracture, like that of quartz; rounded surfaces are created, which are marked by smooth curved lines.
This type of fracture occurs only in very homogeneous minerals. Other types of fracture are fibrous, splintery, and hackly. The latter describes a break along a rough, jagged surface; an example of this property is found in native copper.
Tenacity is related to both cleavage and fracture. Whereas fracture and cleavage describes the surfaces that are created when a mineral is broken, tenacity describes how resistant a mineral is to such breaking. Minerals can be described as brittle, ductile, malleable, sectile, flexible, or elastic. Specific gravity numerically describes the density of a mineral. The dimensions of density are mass divided by volume with units: Specific gravity measures how much water a mineral sample displaces.
Defined as the quotient of the mass of the sample and difference between the weight of the sample in air and its corresponding weight in water, specific gravity is a unitless ratio. Among most minerals, this property is not diagnostic. Rock forming minerals — typically silicates or occasionally carbonates — have a specific gravity of 2. High specific gravity is a diagnostic property of a mineral.
A variation in chemistry and consequently, mineral class correlates to a change in specific gravity. Among more common minerals, oxides and sulfides tend to have a higher specific gravity as they include elements with higher atomic mass. A generalization is that minerals with metallic or adamantine lustre tend to have higher specific gravities than those having a non-metallic to dull lustre.
For example, hematite, Fe 2 O 3 , has a specific gravity of 5. A very high specific gravity becomes very pronounced in native metals ; kamacite , an iron-nickel alloy common in iron meteorites has a specific gravity of 7. Other properties can be used to diagnose minerals. These are less general, and apply to specific minerals. This test can be further expanded to test the mineral in its original crystal form or powdered form.
An example of this test is done when distinguishing calcite from dolomite , especially within rocks limestone and dolostone respectively. Calcite immediately effervesces in acid, whereas acid must be applied to powdered dolomite often to a scratched surface in a rock , for it to effervesce. When tested, magnetism is a very conspicuous property of minerals. Among common minerals, magnetite exhibits this property strongly, and magnetism is also present, albeit not as strongly, in pyrrhotite and ilmenite.
Minerals can also be tested for taste or smell. Halite, NaCl, is table salt; its potassium-bearing counterpart, sylvite , has a pronounced bitter taste. Sulfides have a characteristic smell, especially as samples are fractured, reacting, or powdered. Radioactivity is a rare property; minerals may be composed of radioactive elements. They could be a defining constituent, such as uranium in uraninite , autunite , and carnotite , or as trace impurities.
In the latter case, the decay of a radioactive element damages the mineral crystal; the result, termed a radioactive halo or pleochroic halo , is observable with various techniques, such as thin-section petrography. This formula can be refrigerated for up to 48 hours. Alternatively, if you prefer to make one bottle at a time and want to make a 4 oz. Ready-to-feed formula is exactly what it sounds like. The formula should not be diluted with additional water and is ready to use! A prepared bottle of formula can be kept at room temperature for no more than an hour.
If the formula has been warmed, also keep it for no more than an hour, and do not rewarm it, as this increases the risk of harmful bacteria growth. By the same token, if the baby feeds from the bottle, but there is some milk left in the bottle, the leftover milk should be discarded after one hour and not be given again to the baby, since drinking from a bottle can actually introduce bacteria into the milk.
Once opened, unused ready-to-feed formula or concentrate formula should be refrigerated and used within 48 hours. If you prepare the formula from powder, unused formula, once mixed, should be refrigerated and used within 24 hours. Once a container of powder formula is opened, it should be discarded after 30 days. Extensively hydrolyzed protein formulas contain small peptide proteins, and in amino acid-based formulas, proteins are broken down to the smallest protein building blocks, known as amino acids.
Babies will gradually adjust to the new formula. These formulas, especially the amino acid-based ones, are typically more expensive, but may be covered by your insurance plan with a prescription from your physician.
Premature infants may require additional calories, so special premature infant formulas are often necessary. Children born prematurely may also require different nutrients than children delivered at full term. They need higher amounts of calcium, phosphorus, protein, sodium, potassium, and other minerals including iron, zinc and copper.
These special formulas contain these additional nutrients. Some examples of these formulas include Enfamil Enfacare and Similac Neosure.
There are over fifty store brand versions available that all provide similar safety, quality and nutritional content as brand-name formulas. The FDA has set guidelines for the nutritional standards of all infant formula, for both store and national brands. In addition, store-brand versions cost as little as a third as much as the national brand equivalents.
The same is true for milk alternatives including soy milk. They are usually the first formulas that are tried. The majority of infants will grow well on this type of formula. But is that enough? Wait until you hear about SmartDecision! HealthSmart brings together solutions with shared member data to provide an integrated, holistic approach healthcare.
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