Juli (McGowan ’01) Boit
Nursing historians face the challenge of determining whether care provided to the sick or injured in antiquity was nursing care. All medications administered by nurses must be from a medication prescription from a licensed practitioner. Dyspnea, fatigue is common lasting 4—6 weeks after therapy, good nutrition, liquid diet supplement during periods of esophagitis, avoid wearing tight clothes, skin care. Evaluate availability and adequacy of support system s and necessity for assistance in self-care and home management. Sample Nursing care Plan for Lung Cancer with interventions and rationale. See Systems Used for Verification:
Multiple Paths to Earning Your BSN
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Oregon State Board of Nursing. Obtaining CNA 1 Certification. Click for a list of CNA 2 training programs. Click here to view Frequently Asked Questions about fingerprinting. The required curriculum for medication aides includes subjects related to medication administration. Medication aide programs are available in several areas— click for a list of training programs. Click to schedule a CMA examination.
Generally, you are eligible for endorsement if you are currently or formerly certified in good standing in a U. You will need to send us a copy of your certificate of completion--see the CNA Endorsement Application Packet for details.
You must have at least hours of paid employment as a Certified Nursing Assistant in that state in the last two years. This is waived if you have been certified less than two years. Your hours of paid employment as a CNA was under the supervision of a nurse. You must complete a national criminal background check.
Additionally, all sections of the Endorsement Application Packet must be completed before certification can be granted. In addition to the general application, the packet includes: Oregon requires a copy of your certificate of completion from your nursing assistant training program.
Oregon requires written verification from the state in which you are currently or most recently certified. Call the state where you are currently certified to: Determine whether your certification is current or expired. Nurses work in occupational health settings  also called industrial health settings , free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-led clinics , long-term care facilities and camps.
They also work on cruise ships and in military service. Nurses act as advisers and consultants to the health care and insurance industries. Many nurses also work in the health advocacy and patient advocacy fields at companies such as Health Advocate , Inc.
Nurses can work on a temporary basis, which involves doing shifts without a contract in a variety of settings, sometimes known as per diem nursing , agency nursing or travel nursing.
Nurses work as researchers in laboratories, universities, and research institutions. Nurses have also been delving into the world of informatics, acting as consultants to the creation of computerized charting programs and other software.
Internationally, there is a serious shortage of nurses. In a recent review of the empirical human factors and ergonomic literature specific to nursing performance, nurses were found to work in generally poor environmental conditions. Some countries and states have passed legislation regarding acceptable nurse-to-patient ratios. The fast-paced and unpredictable nature of health care places nurses at risk for injuries and illnesses, including high occupational stress.
Nursing is a particularly stressful profession, and nurses consistently identify stress as a major work-related concern and have among the highest levels of occupational stress when compared to other professions. This stress is caused by the environment, psychosocial stressors, and the demands of nursing, including new technology that must be mastered, the emotional labor involved in nursing, physical labor, shift work , and high workload.
This stress puts nurses at risk for short-term and long-term health problems, including sleep disorders , depression , mortality , psychiatric disorders, stress-related illnesses, and illness in general. Nurses are at risk of developing compassion fatigue and moral distress , which can worsen mental health.
Burnout and exhaustion increase the risk for illness, medical error, and suboptimal care provision. It focuses on three high risk and preventable events:. Hospitals and other healthcare facilities can upload the occupational injury data they already collect for analysis and benchmarking with other de-identified facilities, in order to identify and implement timely and targeted interventions.
Nurses are also at risk for violence and abuse in the workplace. There are a number of interventions that can mitigate the occupational hazards of nursing. They can be individual-focused or organization-focused.
Individual-focused interventions include stress management programs, which can be customized to individuals. Stress management programs can reduce anxiety, sleep disorders, and other symptoms of stress. Organizational interventions focus on reducing stressful aspects of the work environment by defining stressful characteristics and developing solutions to them. Using organizational and individual interventions together is most effective at reducing stress on nurses.
Catholic religious institutes were influential in the development of Australian nursing, founding many of Australia's hospitals — the Irish Sisters of Charity were first to arrive in and established St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney in as a free hospital for the poor. They and other orders like the Sisters of Mercy , and in aged care the Sisters of the Little Company of Mary and Little Sisters of the Poor founded hospitals, hospices, research institutes and aged care facilities around Australia.
A census in the s found several hundred nurses working in Western Australia during the colonial period of history, this included Aboriginal female servants who cared for the infirm. Enrolled and registered nurses are identified by the department of immigration as an occupational area of need, although registered nurses are always in shorter supply, and this increases in proportion with specialization.
In there were a number of rolling industrial actions around the country, culminating when five thousand Victorian nurses went on strike for eighteen days. The hospitals were able to function by hiring casual staff from each other's striking members, but the increased cost forced a decision in the nurses' favor .
In the European Union, the profession of nurse is regulated. A profession is said to be regulated when access and exercise is subject to the possession of a specific professional qualification. The regulated professions database contains a list of regulated professions for nurse  in the EU member states, EEA countries and Switzerland.
Nursing educational program in Iran is similar to the nursing educational program in other countries from some aspects. Holding secondary school diploma and passing the entrance exam is necessary for the admission in this course. Entrance exam to governmental universities and Azad University is held on separate basis. Duration of associate degree course of operating room and anesthesia is 2 years, bachelor's degree in nursing is 4 years and master's degree in nursing is 2- 2.
In the beginning, nursing educational program was the part of medical educational program. On the basis of this structure, the nurse follows the instruction of physician without any question.
Nowadays, nursing educational program in Iran has been progressed and after the year considering the community base care, the nursing educational program also has changed. At present nursing education is held in 43 governmental nursing colleges and 63 nursing colleges of Azad University. Governmental universities' students do not have to pay tuition fee, but in Azad University, which is a private university, the students must pay necessary expenses.
The PhD degree program is held only in governmental universities under the supervision of Ministry of Health and Ministry of Sciences. In bachelor's degree program, nursing students start the clinical work from 2nd term and pass till the completion of 6th term simultaneously with theoretical subjects.
At present nursing educational program in throughout Iran is the same and is compiled under the supervision of Supreme Council of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. Nursing students take the theoretical subjects, training and internship courses in various sections of educational hospitals and hospitals that affiliated to universities.
Students' learning, in clinical sections is performed under the direct supervision and guidance of nursing instructors, but in the final year, activities of students mainly performs under the supervision of nursing personnel and alternate supervision of nursing instructors. Students, during the years of study have opportunity to create relation with patients in the various sections especially intensive care units and to achieve experiences. Students' progress in clinical environments is from simple issues toward harder issues.
At present practical nursing degree and associate degree Nursing Program has been canceled and Iranian nurses must hold bachelor's degree to work in Iran from accredited universities confirmed by the Ministry of Health. Nurse is a person who is holding four years university degree and executes works relating to nursing profession including taking care of patients, perform health and medical services, educational, research and managerial affairs.
At present annually persons are graduated in the bachelor's degree program in nursing. A person who is holding secondary school diploma in nursing and have completed 2 years program in nursing and cooperate in activities of nurses in medical sections under the supervision of nurses. A person who is holding secondary school diploma and passing short term program for the execution of initial cares of patients under the supervision of nurses. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing university's entrance exam and completing 2 years program are in charge of performing professional duties in operation room for preparing patients for surgery and necessary cooperation with surgeons at the time of surgery.
These persons by passing the exam are eligible to continue uncontinuous bachelor's degree course in nursing. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing university's entrance exam and completing 2 years program in Anesthesia, are in charge of performing profession duties in the operating room in the field of anesthesia including preparing the patients for anesthesia and necessary cooperation with anesthesiologists at the time of operation.
These persons by passing exam are eligible to continue uncontinuous bachelor's degree course in nursing. These persons after obtaining secondary school diploma and passing entrance exam of university and obtaining technician diploma are in change of performing affairs including rendering first aid services to the patients and emergency victims resulting from accidents with motor vehicles, explosion, debris, falling from height, fractures, burns, poisonings, cuts, drowning, industrial accidents cutting of limbs , patients with heart diseases and baby delivering.
Nurses after obtaining bachelor's degree and passing the entrance exam are eligible to continue their study in geriatric nursing, pediatric nursing, medical surgical nursing, community health nursing, psychiatric nursing and nursing education. These persons after graduation mainly become in charge of nurses' education or management of medical sections. Duration of this program is 2. At present annually persons are graduated in master's degree program in nursing.
Nurses by holding master's degree after passing entrance exam, are eligible to continue their study in PhD in the field of Nursing. Duration of this program is 4 years and the graduates mainly will work in educational and research sections. At present annually 20 persons are graduated in this program. According to the censes at present approximately , nurses are working in Iran in various sections. Also, nurses are working in the hospitals affiliated to social security organization, armed forces, private sector and charity sector.
Within the last years of independence, nurses' activities are established in offices of consultancy and rendering nursing services at home. Nurses by establishment these centers can render consultant and care services to the client.
At present to work as a nurse only holding accredited academic degree is sufficient, but there are programs for nurses to take RN examination after graduation.
Also, upon the approval and execution of continuous educational act, the Iranian nurses should obtain score of 15 every year in various educational courses held by the Ministry of Health of Universities, Scientific Associations and Nursing organization. To practice lawfully as a registered nurse in the United Kingdom, the practitioner must hold a current and valid registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The title "Registered Nurse" can only be granted to those holding such registration.
First-level nurses make up the bulk of the registered nurses in the UK. Second-level nurse training is no longer provided; however, they are still legally able to practice in the United Kingdom as a registered nurse. Many have now either retired or undertaken conversion courses to become first-level nurses. Many nurses who have worked in clinical settings for a long time choose to leave clinical nursing and join the ranks of the NHS management.
This used to be seen as a natural career progression for those who had reached ward management positions, however with the advent of specialist nursing roles see above , this has become a less attractive option.
Nonetheless, many nurses fill positions in the senior management structure of NHS organizations, some even as board members. Others choose to stay a little closer to their clinical roots by becoming clinical nurse managers or modern matrons. Currently, this involves completing a degree , available from a range of universities offering these courses , in the chosen branch specialty see below , leading to both an academic award and professional registration as a 1st level registered nurse.
These courses are three occasionally four years' long. The first year is known as the common foundation program CFP , and teaches the basic knowledge and skills required of all nurses. Skills included in the CFP may include communication, taking observations, administering medication and providing personal care to patients. The remainder of the program consists of training specific to the student's chosen branch of nursing. As of , the Nursing and Midwifery Council will require all new nurses qualifying in the UK to hold a degree qualification.
Midwifery training is similar in length and structure, but is sufficiently different that it is not considered a branch of nursing. There are shortened 18 month programs to allow nurses already qualified in the adult branch to hold dual registration as a nurse and a midwife. Shortened courses lasting 2 years also exist for graduates of other disciplines to train as nurses. This is achieved by more intense study and a shortening of the common foundation program. As of [update] student nurses in England and Wales can apply a bursary from the government to support them during their nurse training, and may also be eligible for a student loan, although there has been speculation that this will not be available in the future.
Before Project , nurse education was the responsibility of hospitals and was not based in universities; hence many nurses who qualified prior to these reforms do not hold an academic award.
After the point of initial registration, there is an expectation that all qualified nurses will continue to update their skills and knowledge.
The Nursing and Midwifery Council insists on a minimum of 35 hours of education every three years, as part of its post registration education and practice PREP requirements. There are also opportunities for many nurses to gain additional clinical skills after qualification. Cannulation , venipuncture , intravenous drug therapy and male catheterization are the most common, although there are many others such as advanced life support , which some nurses undertake.
Many nurses who qualified with a diploma choose to upgrade their qualification to a degree by studying part-time. Many nurses prefer this option to gaining a degree initially, as there is often an opportunity to study in a specialist field as a part of this upgrading. Financially, in England, it was also much more lucrative, as diploma students get the full bursary during their initial training, and employers often pay for the degree course as well as the nurse's salary.
To become specialist nurses such as nurse consultants, nurse practitioners etc. Master's degrees exist in various healthcare related topics, and some nurses choose to study for PhDs or other higher academic awards. District nurses and health visitors are also considered specialist nurses, and to become such they must undertake specialist training. This is a one-year full-time degree.
All newly qualifying district nurses and health visitors are trained to prescribe from the Nurse Prescribers' Formulary, a list of medications and dressings typically useful to those carrying out these roles. Many of these and other nurses will also undertake training in independent and supplementary prescribing, which allows them as of 1 May to prescribe almost any drug in the British National Formulary.
This has been the cause of a great deal of debate in both medical and nursing circles. Canadian nursing dates back to in Quebec with the Augustine nuns.
The establishment of this mission created the first nursing apprenticeship training in North America. Most nurses were female and only had an occasional consultation with a physician. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, hospital care and medical services had been improved and expanded.
Much of this was due to Nightingale's influence. In the first formal nursing training program was started at the General and Marine Hospital in St. All Canadian nurses and prospective nurses are heavily encouraged by the Canadian Nurses Association to continue their education to receive a baccalaureate degree.
They believe that this is the best degree to work towards because it results in better patient outcomes. In addition to helping patients, nurses that have a baccalaureate degree will be less likely to make small errors because they have a higher level of education. A baccalaureate degree also gives a nurse a more critical opinion, which gives him or her more of an edge in the field. This ultimately saves the hospital money because they deal with less problematic incidents.
All Canadian provinces and territories except for the Yukon and Quebec require that all nurses must have a baccalaureate degree. However, Canada does have a condensed program that is two years long. Nursing specialty certification is available through the Canadian Nurses Association in nineteen practice areas. Canadian nurses hold a lot of responsibility in the medical field and are considered vital.
According to the Canadian Nurses Association, "They expect RNs to develop and implement multi-faceted plans for managing chronic disease, treating complex health conditions and assisting them in the transition from the hospital to the community. Canadians also look to RNs for health education and for strategies to improve their health. RNs assess the appropriateness of new research and technology for patients and adjust care plans accordingly".
Nursing was not an established part of Japan's healthcare system until with the Midwives Ordinance. This established a legal substantiation to registered nurses all over Japan. A new law geared towards nurses was created during World War II: There has been a continued effort to improve nursing in Japan.
In the Nursing Human Resource Law was passed. Those programs were designed to raise the education level of the nurses so that they could be better suited for taking care of the public. This type of nursing is designed to help the public and is also driven by the public's needs. The goals of public health nurses are to monitor the spread of disease, keep vigilant watch for environmental hazards, educate the community on how to care for and treat themselves, and train for community disasters.
Nurses that are involved with midwifery are independent of any organization. A midwife takes care of a pregnant woman during labour and postpartum. They assist with things like breastfeeding and caring for the child. Individuals who are assistant nurses follow orders from a registered nurse.
They report back to the licensed nurse about a patient's condition. Assistant nurses are always supervised by a licensed registered nurse. In Japan established the first nursing university in the country. Soon people began to want nursing degrees at a higher level of education. Currently Japan offers doctorate level degrees of nursing in a good number of its universities. There are three ways that an individual could become a registered nurse in Japan. After obtaining a high school degree the person could go to a nursing university for four years and earn a bachelor's degree, go to a junior nursing college for three years or go to a nursing school for three years.
Those who attended a nursing university have a bit of an advantage over those who went to a nursing school. They can take the national exam to be a registered nurse, public health nurse or midwife. In the cases of become a midwife or a public health nurse, the student must take a one-year course in their desired field after attending a nursing university and passing the national exam to become a registered nurse.
The nursing universities are the best route for someone who wants to become a nurse in Japan. These nursing universities train their students to be able to make critical and educated decisions when they are out in the field.
Physicians are the ones who are teaching the potential nurses because there are not enough available nurses to teach students. This increases the dominance that physicians have over nurses. Students that attend a nursing college or just a nursing school receive the same degree that one would who graduated from a nursing university, but they do not have the same educational background. The classes offered at nursing colleges and nursing schools are focused on more practical aspects of nursing.
These institutions do not offer many general education classes, so students who attend these schools will solely be focusing on their nursing educations while they are in school. Students who attend a nursing college or school do have the opportunity to become a midwife or a public health nurse. They have to go through a training institute for their desired field after graduating from the nursing school or college.
Once they have passed their exam, they have their license for life. Like the United States, Japan is in need of more nurses. The driving force behind this need this is the fact that country is aging and needs more medical care for its people. The country needs a rapid increase of nurses however things do not seem to be turning around.
Some of the reasons that there is a shortage are poor working conditions, an increase in the number of hospital beds, the low social status of nurses, and the cultural idea that married women quit their jobs for family responsibilities.
However, physicians make twice as much as nurses. They are considered lesser and oftentimes negative connotations are associated with nurses. According to the American Nurses Association article on Japan, "nursing work has been described using negative terminology such as 'hard, dirty, dangerous, low salary, few holidays, minimal chance of marriage and family, and poor image'". Some nurses in Japan are trying to be advocates. They are promoting better nursing education as well as promoting the care of the elderly.
The JNA is not to be confused with a union, it is simply a professional organization for the nurses. Members of the JNA lobby politicians and produces publications about nursing. According to the American Nurses Association's article on Japan the JNA, "works toward the improvement in nursing practice through many activities including the development of a policy research group to influence policy development, a code of ethics for nurses, and standards of nursing practice".
The JNA also provides certification for specialists in mental health, oncology and community health. The  JNA is not the only nursing organization in Japan.
There are other subgroups that are typically categorized by the nurses' specialty, like emergency nursing or disaster nursing. One of the older unions that relates to nursing is the Japanese Federation of Medical Workers Union, which was created in This organization was involved with the Nursing Human Resource Law. In the US, scope of practice is determined by the state or territory in which a nurse is licensed. Each state has its own laws, rules, and regulations governing nursing care.
Usually the making of such rules and regulations is delegated to a state board of nursing , which performs day-to-day administration of these rules, licenses nurses and nursing assistants, and makes decisions on nursing issues. In the hospital setting, registered nurses often delegate tasks to LPNs and unlicensed assistive personnel.
RNs are not limited to employment as bedside nurses. Some registered nurses are independent consultants who work for themselves , while others work for large manufacturers or chemical companies. Research nurses conduct or assist in the conduct of research or evaluation outcome and process in many areas such as biology, psychology, human development, and health care systems.
Many employers offer flexible work schedules, child care, educational benefits, and bonuses. About 21 percent of registered nurses are union members or covered by union contract. Nursing is the nation's largest health care profession, with more than 3. Nurses comprise the largest single component of hospital staff, are the primary providers of hospital patient care, and deliver most of the nation's long-term care. The primary pathway to professional nursing, as compared to technical-level practice, is the four-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN degree.
Registered nurses are prepared either through a BSN program; a three-year associate degree in nursing; or a three-year hospital training program, receiving a hospital diploma. All take the same state licensing exam. The number of diploma programs has declined steadily—to less than 10 percent of all basic RN education programs—as nursing education has shifted from hospital-operated instruction into the college and university system.
The oldest method of nursing education is the hospital-based diploma program, which lasts approximately three years. Students take between 30 and 60 credit hours in anatomy , physiology , microbiology , nutrition , chemistry , and other subjects at a college or university, then move on to intensive nursing classes. Until , most RNs in the US were initially educated in nursing by diploma programs.
Some four-year colleges and universities also offer the ADN. Associate degree nursing programs have prerequisite and corequisite courses which may include English, Math and Human Anatomy and Physiology and ultimately stretch out the degree-acquiring process to about three years or greater. The third method is to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN , a four-year degree that also prepares nurses for graduate-level education. For the first two years in a BSN program, students usually obtain general education requirements and spend the remaining time in nursing courses.
In some new programs the first two years can be substituted for an active LPN license along with the required general studies. Advocates for the ADN and diploma programs state that such programs have an on the job training approach to educating students, while the BSN is an academic degree that emphasizes research and nursing theory.
A BSN degree qualifies its holder for administrative, research, consulting and teaching positions that would not usually be available to those with an ADN, but is not necessary for most patient care functions.
Advanced education in nursing is done at the master's and doctoral levels. It prepares the graduate for specialization as an advanced practice registered nurse APRN or for advanced roles in leadership, management, or education.
The clinical nurse leader CNL is an advanced generalist who focuses on the improvement of quality and safety outcomes for patients or patient populations from an administrative and staff management focus.