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Hail to the queen of the Amazon position! New York City District 20 encourages extra-curricular activities for students. Athletics is an extension of the classroom and contributes greatly to the overall education of our students. Athletics teaches the students qualities that are necessary to achieve throughout their lives including, self-discipline, teamwork, sportsmanship, and competitiveness. Through the physical education programs, all students have a great opportunity to grow, develop, and achieve to their potentials.

School or District Name, City, Zip. New York City District 20 Information. Fort Hamilton High School. The borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves.

Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag , is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as " Unity makes strength ". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters , [4] with concomitant gentrification , dramatic house price increases, and a decrease in housing affordability. The name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen , meaning marshland in Dutch.

Established in , the name first appeared in print in There have been so many variations of Brooklyn's name it has caused confusion about its origin; some have claimed breuckelen means "broken land. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island , grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, and was consolidated in with New York City then confined to Manhattan and part of the Bronx , the remaining rural areas of Kings County, and the largely rural areas of Queens and Staten Island , to form the modern City of New York.

The etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the platte Deutsche Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, which was then largely inhabited by the Lenape , an American Indian tribe who are often referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name " Canarsie ". The "Breuckelen" settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands ; it was part of New Netherland , and the Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes listed here by their later English names: The colony's capital of New Amsterdam , across the East River, obtained its charter in , later than the village of Brooklyn.

The neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today. However, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman 's compilation. The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, , [20] one of the "original twelve counties" then established in New York Province.

This tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a later expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. Lacking the patroon and tenant farmer system established along the Hudson River Valley , this agricultural county unusually came to have one of the highest percentages of slavery among the population in the "Original Thirteen Colonies" along the Atlantic Ocean eastern coast of North America.

On August 27, , was fought the Battle of Long Island also known as the 'Battle of Brooklyn' , the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict.

Washington, viewing particularly fierce fighting at the Gowanus Creek from atop a hill near the west end of present-day Atlantic Avenue , was famously reported to have emotionally exclaimed: The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, leaving the British in control of New York Harbor. While Washington's defeat on the battlefield cast early doubts on his ability as the commander, the tactical withdrawal of all his troops and supplies across the East River in a single night is now seen by historians as one of his most brilliant triumphs.

The British controlled the surrounding region for the duration of the war, as New York City was soon occupied and became their military and political base of operations in North America for the remainder of the conflict.

The British generally enjoyed a dominant Loyalist sentiment from the residents in Kings County who did not evacuate, though the region was also the center of the fledgling—and largely successful— American intelligence network , headed by Washington himself. The British set up a system of notorious prison ships off the coast of Brooklyn in Wallabout Bay , where more American patriots died of intentional neglect than died in combat on all the battlefields of the American Revolutionary War, combined.

One result of the Treaty of Paris in was the evacuation of the British from New York City , celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The first half of the 19th century saw the beginning of the development of urban areas on the economically strategic East River shore of Kings County, facing the adolescent City of New York confined to Manhattan Island.

The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay border between Brooklyn and Williamsburgh for the entire 19th century and two-thirds of the 20th century. The first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan , which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in Town and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in In parallel development, the Town of Bushwick, a little farther up the river, saw the incorporation of the Village of Williamsburgh in , which separated as the Town of Williamsburgh in and formed the short-lived City of Williamsburgh in Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the northern part of the county.

Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems. However, the East River shore was growing too fast for the three-year-old infant City of Williamsburgh; it, along with its Town of Bushwick hinterland, was subsumed within a greater City of Brooklyn in Stevens, the growing city across the East River from Manhattan was producing its own prominent newspaper.

The publisher changed to L. The borough's soon-to-be-famous National League baseball team, the Brooklyn Dodgers , also assisted with this. Both major institutions were lost in the s: Agitation against Southern slavery was stronger in Brooklyn than in New York [ citation needed ] , and under Republican leadership the city was fervent in the Union cause in the Civil War.

After the war the Henry Ward Beecher Monument was built downtown to honor a famous local abolitionist. A great victory arch was built at what was then the south end of town to celebrate the armed forces; this place is now called Grand Army Plaza. The city had a population of 25, in , but the police department comprised only 12 men on the day shift and another 12 at night.

Every time a rash of burglaries broke out, officials blamed burglars coming in from New York City. Finally in , a modern police force was created, employing men.

Voters complained of inadequate protection and excessive costs. In , the state legislature merged the Brooklyn force with that of New York City. Fervent in the Union cause, the city of Brooklyn played a major role in supplying troops and materiel for the American Civil War. The most well-known regiment to be sent off to war from the city was the 14th Brooklyn "Red Legged Devils". They fought from to , wore red the entire war, and were the only regiment named after a city; President Lincoln called them into service personally, making them part of a handful of three-year enlisted soldiers in April Unlike other regiments during the American Civil War, the 14th wore a uniform inspired by that of the French Chasseurs , a light infantry used for quick assaults on the enemy.

As both a seaport and a manufacturing center, Brooklyn was well prepared to contribute to the Union's strengths in shipping and manufacturing. The two combined in shipbuilding; the ironclad Monitor was built in Brooklyn. The poem calls New York Harbor "the air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame". As a twin city to New York, it played a role in national affairs that was later overshadowed by its century-old submergence into its old partner and rival.

Economic growth continued, propelled by immigration and industrialization , and Brooklyn established itself as the third-most populous American city for much of the 19th century. The waterfront from Gowanus Bay to Greenpoint was developed with piers and factories. Industrial access to the waterfront was improved by the Gowanus Canal and the canalized Newtown Creek. The USS Monitor was only the most famous product of the large and growing shipbuilding industry of Williamsburg.

After the Civil War , trolley lines and other transport brought urban sprawl beyond Prospect Park and into the center of the county. The rapidly growing population needed more water, so the City built centralized waterworks including the Ridgewood Reservoir.

The municipal Police Department, however, was abolished in in favor of a Metropolitan force covering also New York and Westchester Counties. Throughout this period the peripheral towns of Kings County, far from Manhattan and even from urban Brooklyn, maintained their rustic independence. The only municipal change seen was the secession of the eastern section of the Town of Flatbush as the Town of New Lots in The building of rail links such as the Brighton Beach Line in heralded the end of this isolation.

Sports became big business, and the Brooklyn Bridegrooms played professional baseball at Washington Park in the convenient suburb of Park Slope and elsewhere. Early in the next century, under their new name of Brooklyn Dodgers, they brought baseball to Ebbets Field , beyond Prospect Park. Racetracks, amusement parks , and beach resorts opened in Brighton Beach , Coney Island , and elsewhere in the southern part of the county. Toward the end of the 19th century, the City of Brooklyn experienced its final, explosive growth spurt.

Railroads and industrialization spread to Bay Ridge and Sunset Park. Brooklyn had reached its natural municipal boundaries at the ends of Kings County. Brooklyn elected a mayor from until consolidation in into the City of Greater New York , whose own second mayor — , Seth Low , had been Mayor of Brooklyn from to Since , Brooklyn has, in place of a separate mayor, elected a Borough President.

In , the Brooklyn Bridge was completed, transportation to Manhattan was no longer by water only, and the City of Brooklyn's ties to the City of New York were strengthened. The question became whether Brooklyn was prepared to engage in the still-grander process of consolidation then developing throughout the region, whether to join with the county of New York , the county of Richmond and the western portion of Queens County to form the five boroughs of a united City of New York.

Andrew Haskell Green and other progressives said Yes, and eventually they prevailed against the Daily Eagle and other conservative forces. In , residents of Brooklyn and the other counties voted by a slight majority to merge, effective in Kings County retained its status as one of New York State's counties, but the loss of Brooklyn's separate identity as a city was met with consternation by some residents at the time.

The merger was called the "Great Mistake of " by many newspapers of the day, and the phrase still denotes Brooklyn pride among old-time Brooklynites.

However, Kings County, coterminous with Brooklyn, is New York State's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area. To the east of Brooklyn lies the borough of Queens, which contains John F. Kennedy International Airport in that borough's Howard Beach neighborhood, approximately two miles from the border of the East New York neighborhood of Brooklyn.

Since , the population of Brooklyn was estimated by the United States Census Bureau to have increased 5. According to the United States Census , Brooklyn's population was Hispanics and Latinos made up In , Brooklyn had some neighborhoods segregated based on race, ethnicity, and religion. According to the U. Census Bureau estimates, there are 2,, people up from 2.

Of the , households in Brooklyn, Of all households The average household size was 2. In Brooklyn the population was spread out with The median age was 33 years. Brooklyn has more women and girls, with Brooklyn's lesbian community is the largest out of all of the New York City boroughs.

Brooklyn has a high degree of linguistic diversity. As of , Brooklyn's neighborhoods are dynamic in ethnic composition.

For example, during the early to midth century, Brownsville had a majority of Jewish residents; since the s it has been majority African American. Midwood during the early 20th century was filled with ethnic Irish , then filled with Jewish residents for nearly 50 years, and is slowly becoming a Pakistani enclave. Brooklyn's most populous racial group, white, declined from The borough attracts people previously living in other cities in the United States.

Given New York City's role as a crossroads for legal and illegal immigration from around the world, Brooklyn has evolved a globally cosmopolitan ambience of its own, demonstrating a robust and growing demographic and cultural diversity with respect to metrics including nationality, religion, race, and domiciliary partnership. Brooklyn contains dozens of distinct neighborhoods representing many of the major culturally identified groups found within New York City.

Among the most prominent are listed below:. Over , Jews , particularly Orthodox Jews and Hasidic Jews , have become concentrated in Borough Park , Williamsburg, and Flatbush , where there are many yeshivas , synagogues , and kosher restaurants, as well as many other Jewish businesses. The largest concentration is in Sunset Park along 8th Avenue, which is known for Chinese culture. Many Chinese restaurants can be found throughout Sunset Park, and the area hosts a popular Chinese New Year celebration.

Brooklyn's African American and Caribbean communities are spread throughout much of Brooklyn. Brooklyn is home to one of the largest communities of West Indians outside of the Caribbean, being rivaled only by Toronto, Miami, Montreal, and London. Although the largest West Indian groups in Brooklyn are mostly Jamaicans , Guyanese and Haitians , there are West Indian immigrants from nearly every part of the Caribbean.

Brooklyn has an annual, celebrated Carnival in the tradition of pre-Lenten celebrations in the islands. Bushwick is the largest hub of Brooklyn's Latino American community. Brooklyn's main Latino groups are Puerto Ricans, Mexicans , Dominicans, and Panamanians ; they are spread out throughout the borough. Brooklyn is also home to many Russians and Ukrainians , who are mainly concentrated in the areas of Brighton Beach and Sheepshead Bay.

Originally these communities were mostly Jewish; however, the non-Jewish Russian and Ukrainian communities of Brighton Beach now also represent various aspects of Russian and Ukrainian culture.

Brooklyn's Polish are largely concentrated in Greenpoint , which is home to Little Poland. They are also scattered throughout the southern parts of Brooklyn. Italian Americans are mainly concentrated in the neighborhoods of Bensonhurst , Dyker Heights , Bay Ridge , Bath Beach , Gravesend , Cobble Hill , and Carroll Gardens , where there are many Italian restaurants, bakeries, delicatessens, pizzerias, cafes, and social clubs. Today, Arab Americans and Pakistani Americans along with other Muslim communities have moved into the southwest portion of Brooklyn, particularly to Bay Ridge , where there are many Middle Eastern restaurants, hookah lounges, halal shops, Islamic shops and mosques.

Earlier, the area was known predominately for its Irish, Norwegian, and Scottish populations. Those that stayed engendered close-knit and stable communities, representing many to the civil services esp. Brooklyn's Greek Americans live throughout the borough, especially in Bay Ridge and adjacent areas where there is a noticeable cluster of Hellenic-focused schools and cultural institutions, with many businesses concentrated there and in Downtown Brooklyn near Atlantic Avenue.

Greek-owned diners are also found throughout the borough. Brooklyn is home to a large and growing population of same-sex couples. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, , and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter.

However, rents and costs of living have since increased dramatically in these same neighborhoods, forcing artists to move to somewhat less expensive neighborhoods in Brooklyn or across Upper New York Bay to locales in New Jersey, such as Jersey City or Hoboken.

Since consolidation with New York City in , Brooklyn has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The centralized government of New York City is responsible for public education , correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.

On the other hand, the Brooklyn Public Library is an independent nonprofit organization partially funded by the government of New York City, but also by the government of New York State , the U. The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate , which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use.

In , the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough; it was a violation of the high court's "one man, one vote" reading of the Fourteenth Amendment.

Since , the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Adams replaced popular Borough President Marty Markowitz , also a Democrat , who partially used his office to promote tourism and new development for Brooklyn.

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices, and the borough is very liberal.

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