Decline in these two areas are strongly associated with Alzheimer's dementia. There is preliminary evidence that giving vitamin D supplements to infants might decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes later in life Hypponen, Lancet If you have trouble using the dropper and are prone to squeeze out more drops than you need, consider one of the other liquids which have special tops that pour out drops. Too high a dose of vitamin D may actually weaken leg muscles, as shown in a one-year study of overweight and obese women with a mean vitamin D blood levels of Being in the Customer Service industry for almost four years, Jill was able to develop a keen eye for customer service and satisfaction.

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A review in of seven clinical trials ranging in length from 4 months to one year -- including the Castro and Tachimoto studies noted above investigating the effects of vitamin D supplementation in children or adults with asthma most of whom had mild to moderate asthma and used their regular asthma medications as needed found that oral vitamin D supplementation average daily dose IU vitamin D3, although some participants received additional, larger doses in some trials reduced the average number of attacks per year requiring treatment with oral steroid medication from 0.

Due to lack of data, the researchers were not able to assess whether the improvements would be limited to those who were deficient in vitamin D before supplementation, or whether those with more severe asthma would benefit.

A later review of studies similarly found that vitamin D supplementation reduces the rates of asthma exacerbations requiring treatment with systemic corticosteroids. In summary, moderate doses of vitamin D may improve symptoms of asthma in children as well as in adults with uncontrolled asthma. However, improvements may be limited to those with very low vitamin D levels, e. This benefit was not found for those who began the study with sufficient levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D did not reduce the risk of upper respiratory infection among any group.

Martineau, Lancet Resp Med Allergy Higher serum vitamin D levels are associated with a reduced risk of allergy in children and adolescents. Results were adjusted for potentially confounding factors like time spent on indoor activities.

The strongest associations were for allergy to oak 5 times the risk , peanut 2. There was also increased risk of allergy to dog, cockroach, mite, shrimp, ryegrass, Bermuda grass, birch and thistle. In adults, there was no consistent association between allergy and vitamin D levels. This was shown in a study in New Zealand in which pregnant women were given 1, IU or 2, IU of vitamin D during the last 3 months of pregnancy and their newborn infants were then given, respectively, IU or IU for 6 months.

Another group of mothers and infants received placebo. The researchers noted that other studies have shown that sensitization to dust mites is associated with increased risk of childhood asthma Grant, Allergy Fibromyalgia Preliminary studies suggest improvements in symptoms of fibromyalgia with vitamin D supplementation. Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome in which a person has long-term, body-wide pain and tenderness in the joints, muscles, tendons, and other soft tissues.

The study involved 30 adults mostly women in Austria with fibromyalgia. Twenty-four weeks after supplementation ended, pain returned to the original level in the group Wepner, Pain The researchers noted that vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with chronic tension-type headache, perhaps by causing musculoskeletal pain. However, vitamin D deficiency was not associated with the severity of migraine episodes Song, J Clin Neurol Lupus A preliminary study suggests that raising low vitamin D levels with supplementation provides beneficial immunological effects in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus SLE.

Arthritis Low levels of vitamin D are also associated with a higher risk in women of developing rheumatoid arthritis. Mean scores of "irritability" decreased from to 70, "crying easily" decreased from 41 to 30, sadness decreased from "51 to 31" and "disturbed relationships" decreased from to 70 compared to the beginning of treatment.

Those who took a placebo had a significant reduction only in "irritability" from to Tartagni, J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol Possibly explaining these findings are laboratory studies showing that vitamin D in its active form inhibits the overproduction of tissue by uterine muscle cells -- the cause of fibroids. The study was conducted in Washington, D. Fibroids are the leading reason for hysterectomy in the U.

Early menopause Adequate intake of vitamin D from the diet is associated with a lower risk of early menopause i. Early menopause is of concern because it is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. A study of more than 80, women found that those who had the highest intakes of vitamin D from foods IU per day -- equivalent to that found in 2. The association between intake of vitamin D from foods and reduced risk of early menopause was strongest when vitamin D was obtained from dairy foods, as opposed to non-dairy foods, although the reason for this is not clear.

Intake of vitamin D from supplements was not associated with a reduced risk — and high intake of calcium from supplements particularly mg or more per day was actually associated with an increased risk of early menopause Purdue-Smith, Am J Clin Nutr Pregnancy Vitamin D levels in the blood of pregnant women are associated with infant growth.

A study in the U. A study in India evaluated the effect of giving pregnant women large doses of vitamin D. In another group of women who were not given vitamin D average vitamin D level of The non-treated group also had babies with a lower average birth weight 5. The researchers note that lower-dose daily preparations may have been preferable to the large monthly doses but were not available.

A study in London found that periodic high doses of vitamin D increased the risk and duration of respiratory infections. The study was conducted among older residents of group homes and 46 of their caregivers average age was 67 years. During the study, all residents were given IU of vitamin D3 daily and more than half were given an additional 96, IU every two months -- for a total dose averaging 2, IU per day.

A subgroup of caregivers was given what also averaged to 2, IU per day, but as , IU every two months. The researchers note that other studies have found that relatively low-dose vitamin D has been shown to offer protection against upper respiratory infection and that intermittent large doses have not.

Similarly, a placebo-controlled study in people with mild to moderate asthma found that giving high-dose vitamin D , IU initial dose and 4, IU daily for weeks did not decrease the risk of developing a cold. Also see Castro study, above, for effects on asthma control in this same group. In contrast the above studies in adults, a study in Sweden found vitamin D supplementation to be quite helpful. Many also had immunodeficiencies. Vitamin D3 4, IU or placebo was taken daily for one year.

However, the high dose patients were also more than twice as likely to experience a fall although not a fracture during the study period Ginde, J Am Geriatr Soc — a finding in line with other research showing that high dose vitamin D may weaken legs and increase the risk of falls See " Muscle, balance and falls " for more about this.

Researchers in Japan studied the effect of vitamin D 3 supplements 1, IU per day from December through March on the incidence of seasonal influenza A in school children. Influenza A infection occurred in The reduction was more prominent among children who had not been taking other vitamin D supplements.

Influenza infection was not reduced among a subgroup of asthmatic children but those who became infected were significantly less likely to have an asthmatic attack if they had received vitamin D than if they had not. Supplementation did not affect the incidence of influenza B which is less common than influenza A and is not seasonal.

Adequate vitamin D levels were associated with a lower risk of pneumonia in a study of men and women ages 53 to 73 in Finland which followed them for an average of nine years Aregbesola, J Epid Comm Hlth The researchers found that a low vitamin D level was almost as strong a risk factor for pneumonia as smoking. Ear infection Otitis media Among children ages 1 to 5 years with a history of recurrent ear infections, those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had a decreased risk of developing un complicated ear infections acute otitis media during a 6-month study including wintertime.

However, the study found that higher vitamin D levels did not reduce the risk of complicated ear infections e. Although the children receiving vitamin D experienced significantly fewer episodes of uncomplicated ear infections, there was no significant reduction in complicated infections Marchisio, Pediatr Infect Dis J It would seem best for children to follow the recommendations for vitamin D outlined in the Summary above.

However, further analyses showed no reduction in the risk of depression resulting from vitamin D supplements alone. The reductions were only associated with higher vitamin D intake from foods. Mean serum blood levels of vitamin D increased from The study also showed a modest improvement in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in weight Penckofer, Abstract from ADA Scientific Sessions Although promising, the study had no control group and a larger, controlled study is underway using vitamin D3.

Alzheimer's disease, dementia and cognitive decline A study which followed 1, older adults in the U. All participants were relatively healthy at the start of the study. While the study suggests that higher levels of vitamin D may be beneficial, it did not test whether raising a person's vitamin D level reduces the risk of dementia.

Similarly, a study among healthy older men and women in France average age 73 who were followed for an average of A study which followed older, ethnically diverse adults in California for a mean period of 4. Decline in these two areas are strongly associated with Alzheimer's dementia. Vitamin D status was not associated with rates of decline in two other cognitive areas: The average starting level of vitamin D among the participants was There was, however, no association between vitamin D intake and the risk of developing other types of dementia.

The study excluded women who had taken vitamin D supplements. Parkinson's disease A study from Finland suggested that higher vitamin D status provides protection against Parkinson's disease. Multiple sclerosis Although research suggests that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for developing multiple sclerosis, it is not clear that supplementing with vitamin D reduces the risk.

There is mixed evidence as to whether vitamin D levels of pregnant mothers correlate with MS risk in their children, but one study in Finland found that the risk of MS as an adult was 90 percent higher in children of mothers who were significantly deficient in vitamin D levels less than The researchers noted that vitamin D is involved in the production of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which may play a role in certain autistic characteristics.

Similarly, a study in China found that infants with very low levels of vitamin D at birth were more likely to have autism spectrum disorder on follow up at age 3 than those with moderate levels. It was predicted that the lowest risk of autism was among babies with a blood level of Researchers in Egypt noted an association between lower blood levels of vitamin D and higher severity of autism symptoms.

They then conducted a study giving children with autism spectrum disorder ages 3 to 10 high-dose 5, IU vitamin D as drops , or less for children under 36 lbs , daily for 4 months. Symptoms improved, on average, from "moderate" to "mild," while there was no change among children given placebo drops. Be aware that the dose given exceeds the upper tolerable intake level UL for vitamin D 3, IU to 4, IU for children this age and vitamin D levels were boosted from an average of Lower doses were not tested.

The researchers note that additional studies are needed to validate these findings Saad, J Child Psychol Psychi Executive functioning Executive functioning refers to the set of mental skills that help you get things done, like planning and strategic thinking. Maintaining a sufficient level of vitamin D appears to be associated with better executive functioning, according to a study in Norwegian adolescents.

It also found that giving 1, IU or 38 mcg of vitamin D 3 daily for three months which increased average vitamin D blood levels from Weight control A month study found that taking vitamin D 3 had no overall effect on weight or fat loss in overweight or obese postmenopausal women consuming a reduced calorie diet and following a program of 45 minutes of aerobic 5 days per week Mason, Am J Clin Nutr Regardless of whether they took 2, IU vitamin D 3 daily or a placebo, women lost an average 16 lbs.

In fact, a subsequent analysis of this study found that those who received vitamin D lost strength in their leg muscles -- see "Muscle, balance, and falls" above. However, it may just be that vitamin D levels in the blood rose more in women who lost more fat, due to the fact that vitamin D is fat soluble and stored within fat; indeed, an earlier study by the same researchers showed that weight loss raises vitamin D levels Mason, Am J Clin Nutr Frailty A study found that older women 69 years and older whose vitamin D levels were not between 20 and An average of 4.

However, studies to-date have generally not demonstrated a reduction in cancers from taking vitamin D supplements. For example, a large 4-year placebo-controlled study of post-menopausal women in rural Nebraska found that giving 2, IU daily of vitamin D3 and mg of calcium as 3 doses of mg did not significantly lower the risk of cancer. In fact, most of the women including those in the placebo group were already taking vitamin D supplements before the study and were allowed to continue during the study, with average daily intake of around IU Lappe, JAMA Similarly, a study of more than 5, older adults in New Zealand found that giving high-dose vitamin D , IU followed by monthly doses of , IU for 2.

However, most people did not start the study deficient in vitamin D average blood level was A moderately decreased risk of developing colorectal cancers , specifically, has been demonstrated with higher vitamin D levels as well as with higher vitamin D intakes Ma, J Clin Oncol An analysis of data from two large studies of health professionals found higher vitamin D levels to be associated with a much lower risk of developing a subtype of colorectal cancer in which there is extensive immune cell infiltration within the tumor — perhaps explained by vitamin D's effects on the immune system.

A review of 17 studies compared the risk of colorectal cancer in people with varying blood levels. In seeming contrast to this, a large, multi-year study in the U. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of adenomas between those who were or were not given the supplements. These findings, therefore, may not apply to people with vitamin D levels which are inadequate, i. A study of 1, women average age 59 with breast cancer found that those with higher vitamin D blood levels around the time of diagnosis had the highest overall survival rates over an average 7 years of follow up.

The reduction in risk associated with vitamin D was greatest for premenopausal women. Women with lowest blood levels of vitamin D at the time of diagnosis were more likely to have the most advanced-staged tumors Yao, JAMA Oncol Somewhat similarly, an analysis in of five clinical studies found that women who had the highest vitamin D blood levels at the time of breast cancer diagnosis were twice as likely to survive during the studies which lasted 5 to 20 years as women with the lowest vitamin D levels Mohr, Anticancer Research While this association between vitamin D levels and mortality with breast cancer is not proven to be "cause-and-effect," there is no scientific reason to believe that breast cancer would cause a decrease in vitamin D, suggesting a likely beneficial effect of vitamin D.

This potential beneficial link between vitamin D and breast cancer was somewhat strengthened by analysis of a study which gave 2, IU daily to overweight or obese postmenopausal women in the hope that it would aid weight loss during dieting -- although it did not see Mason study in "Weight control" above. However, most of the reduction in blood estrogens appeared to be due to dieting itself , with estrogen levels falling, on average, by about An analysis of data pooled from three studies concluded that higher vitamin D blood levels " The analysis was primarily based on data from just one of the studies, known as the GrassrootsHealth study, which, unlike the other two, was not randomized nor placebo-controlled and was based on self-reported health information from a self-selected group of people interested in vitamin D.

A study in Spain found that lower levels of vitamin D in the blood were associated with higher risks of bladder cancer. Even greater increases were found with the risk of metastatic bladder cancer. Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D may inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth and a review of five large epidemiologic studies concluded that higher levels of serum vitamin D were associated with a lower risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D inhibits prostate cancer cells in laboratory studies.

Whether or not vitamin D supplementation actually reduces the risk of prostate cancer is not known, but some studies do suggest an association between vitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk. For example, a large study in the U. This finding is somewhat consistent with a smaller study of men in Chicago undergoing radical prostatectomy due to indications of possible cancer , in which those found not to have advanced cancer had a median blood level of However, the study found that men with advanced cancer were more likely to be black, and the black men were more likely to have lower levels of vitamin D as seen in other studies , so when the results were analyzed just among blacks or among whites, there was no longer an association between vitamin D levels and advanced prostate cancer Nyame, J Clin Oncol A study of men aged 40 to 79 in the U.

A study of male smokers in Finland concluded that "men with higher vitamin D blood levels are at increased risk of developing prostate cancer," but this assertion has been called misleading since the risk increased only among men with calcium intakes of 1, mg per day or greater — an intake that substantially exceeds the recommended intake for adult men 1, mg.

Increased calcium intake itself is a potential risk factor for prostate cancer. This study, however, has several weaknesses including the fact that it was based on pooled data from two unrelated studies, one of which, run by the group GrassrootsHealth which derives revenue from vitamin D home tests , was based entirely on a self-selected group of women who chose to maintain relatively high levels of vitamin D and self-reported their health status via a questionnaire. The review also found that, in the U.

The review did not define exactly when, or how much, vitamin D is most effective, but you can find sensible guidelines in the Summary , above. On a similar note, an analysis of data from 3, patients recovering from noncardiac surgery at the Cleveland Clinic found that those with higher levels of vitamin D in their blood were less likely to experience serious post-operative complications, including death Turan, Anesth Analg The researchers suggest a trial be conducted in which vitamin D supplementation is given preoperatively.

For more information about the uses, see the article about Vitamin D in the Natural Products Encyclopedia on this Web site. Like other supplements, neither the FDA nor any other federal or state agency routinely tests calcium or vitamin D supplements for quality prior to sale. However, quality issues can include the following: Labeled Amount Does the product really contain the labeled amount of vitamin D and other key listed ingredients such as calcium, magnesium, and vitamin K?

Purity Vitamin D supplements for bone health often include calcium as an ingredient. Calcium may potentially be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and cadmium. In children, infants, and fetuses, even low levels of lead can adversely affect neurobehavioral development and cognitive function.

Providing people with the convenience to shop at their own comfort, Malaysians can enjoy a whole new home shopping experience starting 1 April Shoppers can purchase by calling the toll free number, or accessing its online shopping site and mobile app options, whether it is at home, or anytime anywhere.

By TianChad Chen - March 07, I've visited this petting zoo two years ago so what I've seen might be different from what you gonna see there.

I am guessing you might able to see even more animals than I did last time. Anyway, below are some of the things you can do in Farm in the City. From feeding the fishes, birds, tortoise to hugging the rabbits and see the parrots doing tricks in front of you and your kids. During my visit, we saw quite a lot exotic animals too, I remember I saw a white crow and the cute Dik Dik that looks cute and smart.

The roles, relationships and appropriate inputs of sulfur and magnesium are explained and the multiple benefits of trace mineral nutrition are comprehensively detailed. This module also features presentations highlighting the relationship between key minerals and your own personal health and longevity. This module focuses on the secrets of leaf testing, in-field monitoring and foliar fertilising to maximise both resilience and production. At this point, we are evaluating our mineral and microbe management and effectively asking the plant what it wants.

Here, you will become aware of "the big four" minerals that should be maintained at luxury levels on a leaf test in order to boost quality and yield. You will understand the benefits and mechanics of seed treatment and liquid injection at planting. The timing, interpretation and nutrient relationships associated with leaf testing will be considered in depth. You will also gain an understanding of natural plant growth promotants and core biological inputs such as humic acid, fulvic acid and kelp.

This segment will also feature a presentation covering the links between agriculture and global warming and the profound impact farmers can make. In fact, farmers can literally save the day. Here, you will discover the link between plant brix, sap pH values and crop resilience. You will understand the concept of "defensive feeding", where nutrition determines pest pressure.

In this module, there is a focus upon IPM, biological inoculums and other protective strategies to reduce your requirement for chemicals. Sustainable weed management strategies are discussed in depth and botanical extracts are evaluated for their pest management contribution. Management options for the world's most destructive pest, the root knot nematode, will be thoroughly analysed. There is also a fascinating presentation in this module covering multiple anecdotes chronicling the progress and experiences of previous graduates of this course.

Here, you will discover the fascinating world of the hidden workforce that often determines the profitability of your farming enterprise.