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A phenomenal way to further accentuate the focus to the glutes and hams is to halt movement at the top of each rep during walking lunges and simultaneously drive the hips back. Although originally a comfort index, the use of the black globe temperature to replace dry bulb temperature in the ET nomograms provided the Corrected Effective Temperature CET Bedford This same concept can be applied to hypertrophy and physique training. Perhaps their most famous supple. One important difference in the way humans respond to cold compared to heat is that behaviour plays a much greater role in thermoregulatory response to cold. Best Endurance Supplements of - Top 5 List. Use if it is not possible to modify worker, work or environment and heat stress is still beyond limits.


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When mice with progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system were put on an alternate-day fasting diet regime, hampered disease progression was observed as indicated by improved nerve morphology and performance compared to mice fed ad libitum Furthermore, alternate-day fasting leads to increased functional recovery after experimentally induced spinal cord injuries in rats, independently if the alternate-day fasting regimen is implemented prior or after the spinal cord is injured 27, If this effect is demonstrated in humans, intermittent fasting could potentially serve as a non-pharmacological therapeutic alternative in the rehabilitation process in subjects with spinal cord injuries.

The effect in mice was greater with alternate-day fasting compared to daily calorie restriction, suggesting that increased time span in the fasted state has additive effects other than those attributed to calorie restriction alone The beneficial effect does however not appear universal to all neurologic disorders. No desirable effect was observed in an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , indicating that intermittent fasting has no beneficial effect on the development of this motor neuron disease To study the potential anti-carcinogenic effect of intermittent fasting, three different aspects of tumorgenesis have been studied: Seven studies were included.

Subjects with elevated IGF-1 levels have been reported to exhibit increased risk of several cancer types. Furthermore, high circulating levels of insulin and IGF-1 in combination are often seen in subjects with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, patient categories that are also more likely to be affected by cancers Rats on alternate-day fasting diets showed decreased levels of IGF-1 and proliferation rates of T-cells and prostate cells Cell proliferation rates are considered a central element in the development of cancers Decreased cell proliferation has previously been demonstrated with reduced feeding frequency alone, despite matched calorie intake In a third study, true but not modified alternate-day fasting decreased IGF-1 levels in mice.

Cell proliferation rates were however reduced in both groups, even in the absence of weight loss There is however some conflicting data in regard to intermittent fasting and IGF One might suspect that two 24 hour fasts per week would be insufficient to exhibit the anti-carcinogenic effects.

However, Anson et al. The authors suggested a difference in the way intermittent fasting and calorie restriction influence the growth hormone -IGF-1 axis and insulin signaling pathways. The relevance of IGF-1 for tumor growth in intermittently fasted animals, with or without calorie restriction remains thus a subject for further clarification.

Recent research has also examined intermittent fasting and its direct effect on tumor development. OF1 is a strain of mice that spontaneously develops age related lymphomas at a high rate. There was no difference in food intake or body weight between the two groups, suggesting that intermittent fasting has a protective effect on lymphoma development in this mouse strain, and that the effect was independent of the total calorie intake.

The effect of intermittent fasting on induced hepatocarcinogenesis has also been examined. When rats were put on a 48 hour fasting regimen once per week, they developed less preneoplastic lesions compared to rats fed ad libitum over a 48 week period The effects of shorter, more frequent fasts, such as alternate-day fasting on hepatocarcinogenesis remains a subject for future research.

Consequently, studies to date indicate that intermittent fasting hampers cell proliferation rates in a variety of cell types, and that it could potentially protect against direct development of some cancer types.

Two studies looked at survival per se. They propose that animals on alternate-day fasting diets increase life span compared to those fed ad libitum 15, The magnitude of life span enhancement seems to be dependent on animal strain and age of initiation Furthermore, in one study, only rats on alternate-day fasting diets survived to 30 months of age compared to a mean lifespan of months for rats fed ad libitum It is merely speculative if the effect on longevity is secondary to the above described effects such as decreased body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, improved cardiovascular health, decreased tumor growth and improved neuronal health, or if intermittent fasting might have some distinctive effect on the aging process.

No study to date has specifically studied the effect of intermittent fasting without calorie restriction on lifespan, although the effects that have been described are expected to increase life span. Some other interesting effects than the primary addressed in this review were observed in various studies. Many strains of laboratory rats develop spontaneous progressive kidney failure with development of proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Rats fed on alternate days showed preserved kidney function as demonstrated by preserved glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow, compared to rats fed ad libitum Analgesia, which may be attributed to negative modulation of synaptic transmission in nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, has also been reported in rats maintained on an alternate-day fasting diet This finding opens up the question whether intermittent fasting alone or in combination with a pharmacological agent could serve as a useful new therapeutic approach for treating pain.

Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims restrain from fluid and food intake during daytime for the whole month. Worldwide, there are more than one billion Muslims, of whom the majority fast annually The holy month of Ramadan could thus potentially be a good period to study prolonged short term intermittent fasting in humans on a large scale. A total of 17 studies were found. Conclusions are however very hard to draw from these studies.

Apart from the obvious difficulties with doing randomized controlled trials there is a number of confounding factors 59, Such confounding variables include:. Furthermore, the studies were generally of poor study design with few participants and lack of control group. As a result the studies are highly inconclusive with the effects on body weight and blood lipids with some studies showing unchanged body weight 59,61 while others show weight loss Therefore, no objective conclusions could be made about this type of short term intermittent fasting and cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and further research of higher quality is warranted.

The fasting participants were compared to the non-fasting participants and all food was delivered from the same kitchen, thus eliminating some of the confounding factors above 60, Apart from a small difference in body weight 0,7 kg that could be explained by hydration status between the two groups, no differences were observed in blood glucose levels, hematocrit, cortisol levels, inflammation markers or physical performance.

In another study, fasting healthy men and women were compared to a matched non-fasting group with regard to inflammation markers and blood lipid status No differences were observed in body weight, total cholesterol, triglycerides or LDL levels. There was however an increase in HDL levels and decreased inflammation — proposing a beneficial effect in the fasted subjects. Thus, there are some data suggesting altered health markers during the month of Ramadan, but more research is needed if any objective conclusions about this type of intermittent fasting and the factors studied in this review ought to be drawn.

To date, very few human intervention studies have tried to replicate the reported effects of alternate-day fasting seen in rodent studies. Only six such studies were found, with somewhat disappointing study designs The sample size in these studies was rather small, ranging from eight to sixteen participants, and the study period was often very short. Only one trial included a control group. The results are summarized in Table 2. In both true alternate-day fasting trials, a decreased body weight was observed 66, In modified alternate-day fasting trials, maintained bodyweight was observed in lean 65,69 but not obese 64,68 subjects.

In obese subjects, a modified week alternate-day fasting regimen resulted in weight loss, reduced blood pressure and heart rate, and improved markers for cardiovascular health, such as decreased total cholesterol, decreased LDL and triglycerides, increased HDL concentrations and decreased oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, suggesting that alternate-day fasting might be a novel strategy for decreasing body weight and improving cardiovascular health in the obese population 64, To examine the effects of alternate-day fasting on glucose metabolism, eight healthy men were maintained on a 20h modified alternate-day fast for two weeks.

Despite unaltered body weight and habitual physical activity, insulin dependent glucose uptake increased, and increased adiponectin levels were observed In another trial, the insulin sensitizing effect of true alternate-day fasting was observed through reduced insulin response to a standardized meal in men, but not women — suggesting a potential sex difference in the effect of alternate-day fasting on glucose metabolism Although not demonstrated in all human studies 68,69 , these results indicate that alternate-day fasting might mimic the insulin sensitizing effects observed in rodents on alternate-day fasting diet, and that the effect might be due to increased adiponectin levels.

Sex differences were also observed in another study where healthy men and women were fasted on alternate days. In this study, HDL levels were increased in women only, and triglycerides were decreased in men but not women Increased insulin sensitivity was suggested by decreased insulin levels with unaltered glucose levels.

In this study, blood pressure was unaltered, but the study duration was merely 22 days. In contrast, one trial showed decreased blood pressure and resting heart rates in subjects on modified alternate-day fasting regimens for 10 weeks, suggesting that longer intervention periods might be needed for this effect to occur There is, however, conflicting data from another study that utilized a two week crossover study design and randomized eight healthy men to a modified alternate-day fasting diet or a standard diet.

No differences were observed in body weight, blood lipids, glucose metabolism or hormone levels, and there was a decrease in energy expenditure after the 2 week period in the alternate-day fasting group More controlled studies, with larger sample sizes and longer study durations are thus needed to bring clarification in this matter. No human trial has directly examined intermittent fasting and tumor physiology.

A single two day fast increases endogenous GH-production fivefold, reflecting the metabolic adaptation to fasting, including increased hepatic glucose production, lipolysis and nitrogen conservation However no significant changes in IGF-1 are seen after a single fast period in human subjects, suggesting that repeated fasts and longer intervention periods might be necessary to mimic the changes in IGF-1 and altered cancer growth observed in some rat studies.

Whether a prolonged alternate-day fasting regimen can alter IGF-1 levels in humans remains an area for future research. Furthermore, no human trials to date have examined the effects of intermittent fasting on neuronal health or life span.

The exact mechanism by which calorie restriction and intermittent fasting exhibits its effects on various organ systems remains unknown. Alternating periods of anabolism and catabolism during intermittent fasting might further increase the cellular stress resistance.

Other displayed effects are increased production of neutrophilic factors and antioxidant enzymes, ketone body formation and altered metabolism enzyme production 5. A variety of questions often arises when discussing intermittent fasting and human health.

It is often believed that blood sugar levels will fall to pathological levels if prolonged fasts are implemented. A characteristic decline in mood and energy levels before lunch among humans is often attributed to a drop in blood sugar. However when actually testing blood sugar levels in healthy subjects prone to this phenomena, no actual decline in blood sugar to pathologic levels was seen during a 24 hour fast Furthermore, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of two days of calorie deprivation showed no adverse effect on cognitive performance, activity, sleep, and mood, when the subjects were unaware of the calorie content of the treatments The homeostasis of body weight regulation and hunger signaling is composed of complex circuits of both central signals including orexin, neuropeptide Y, melanin concentrating hormone and alpha-melanocyte, and peripheral signals from the gut and adipose tissue, such as ghrelin, peptide YY and leptin The interplay between these and other endocrine signaling systems and its effect on body weight regulation and subjective feelings of hunger and satiety remains largely unknown.

The hunger response however seems to be highly adaptive in different meal patterns. Ghrelin, a gut derived hormone, is considered a meal-initiation signal. It increases during fasting and usually peaks in concentration before an anticipated meal, paired with increased feelings of hunger, and decreases after feeding.

Increases in subjective feelings of hunger might be the single most important factor to consider when discussing the applicability of intermittent fasting as a therapeutic or preventive intervention in human subjects. In obese patients, a 14 day total fast lead to strikingly decreased body weights and decreased blood pressure, without causing increased hunger sensations. Thus a hunger suppressing effect of prolonged fasting was demonstrated This anorexic effect might be attributed to the evolutionary purpose of seeking for nutrients in absence of food.

The experiment, dating back to , was effective and well tolerated. Only one study has directly examined the feelings of hunger and fullness in non-obese subjects on an intermittent fasting diet, by using a mm visual analog scale The subjects were fasted on alternate days and reported an increased feeling of hunger from 37 to 56 mm and decrease in feeling of fullness from 43 to 23 mm when the dietary intervention was initiated.

The magnitude of hunger did however not change during the intervention period as repeated measurements were taken, and feelings of fullness actually increased some over time. The duration of this study was only 22 days and it is still purely speculative whether and adaptation to the new meal pattern would occur in a longer time span. In contrast, modified alternate-day fasting in obese asthmatic patients did not significantly increase the subjective perception of hunger from baseline during the eight week long intervention period Whether repeated bouts of short term fasting can alter hunger hormone signaling or demonstrate the same anorexic effect as the long term fast described above is highly speculative and an interesting area for future research.

It is commonly believed that multiple small meals increase metabolism and lead to increased overall energy expenditure. Following every meal there is an increase in expenditure due to the processing of the nutrients, commonly referred to Thermic Effect of Food TEF A common belief therefore is that increased meal frequency leads to increased TEF and increased overall energy expenditure with multiple meals, and that intermittent fasting accordingly would decrease metabolic rate and lead to increased fat accumulation and possibly obesity.

According to current research though, TEF is proportional to the calorie content and vary with macronutrient composition with the highest increase in energy expenditure observed with a high protein diet and not meal frequency per se , as demonstrated by the equal TEF in different meal patterns under iso-caloric conditions 79, Furthermore, one study examined alterations in resting metabolic rate in human subjects on alternate-day fasting diets, and found no changes after a 22 day period According to these findings, any potential decreases in metabolic rate would be due to decreased total calorie intake and not fasting per se.

Increased levels of both ACTH and corticosteroids can be noted in rodents maintained on alternate-day fasting diets compared with rats fed ad libitum 28,29, Apart from the obvious notion that cortisol is one of the major hormones responsible for glucose utilization during fasting, the question arises whether the increased stress in any way could be harmful to the human organism. The molecular stress response in intermittently fasted subjects seems markedly different from the one associated with uncontrolled stress.

In contrast, in uncontrolled stress, down regulation of the mineral corticoid receptor has been noted. Furthermore, deleterious stress responses are associated with a decrease in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF , a response quite the opposite of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting, where increased concentrations of BDNF have been observed in numerous studies 4.

In conclusion, the controlled stress response from intermittent fasting seems fundamentally different from the one by uncontrolled physiological and psychological stress. Conversely, In line with the mechanisms described above, the increased stress might be one of the necessary factors for initiating molecular resistance for larger stressors, and thus promote some of the beneficial effects of intermittent fasting.

One potential serious side effect of intermittent fasting would be loss of muscle mass. Theoretically, food deprivation would result in depleted hepatic glycogen stores, leading to increased proteolysis and flux of amino acids from skeletal muscle for hepatic de novo gluconeogenesi s, to maintain healthy blood glucose concentrations.

As discussed previously though, a 24 hour short term fast is insufficient in duration to deplete liver glycogen stores in healthy subjects Up to 40 hours of total fasting does not stimulate catabolic processes and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy Modified alternate-day fasting and loss of lean body mass was investigated in only one study in the systematic search.

No loss of fat free mass in the absence of weight loss was observed compared to a control group fed a standardized diet Furthermore, an increase in ketone body concentrations has been observed in subjects on alternate-day fasting diets in both human and animal studies 17, Ketone bodies spare skeletal muscle from breakdown by providing non-glucose energy substrate for various tissues, of which the brain is the most important, and thus decrease the need for protein-derived substrates for gluconeogenetic conversion to maintain glucose homeostasis Available data thus suggests that short term fasting does not deplete hepatic glycogen stores to the extent that markedly increased proteolysis and gluconeogenesis becomes necessary to maintain healthy glucose concentrations.

Still this notion needs to be clarified in future research of longer duration. Intermittent fasting in the form of alternate day fasting in many instances reduces overall energy intake, with no obvious adverse effects, and thus becomes a model of calorie restriction in both human and animal subjects.

Secondary to reduced energy intake and weight loss, effects such as reduced risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and improved glucose metabolism have been demonstrated in both animal and human subjects on true and modified alternate-day fasting diets. In rats, protection against ischemic injury and improved survival has been demonstrated in both myocardial and cerebral ischemic events. Other beneficial effects, such as slowing the neuronal aging process and increasing cognitive functions and memory, have been observed.

Additionally, calorie restriction can reduce cancer risk and increase life span in rodent models on alternate-day fasting diets. Some effects occur even if the subject maintains body weight, suggesting that the reduced meal frequency or prolonged time in the fasted state might have some additional effects regardless of overall calorie restriction and weight loss. In humans, modified alternate-day fasting diets might be easier to adhere to and they seemingly lead to less pronounced weight loss than true alternate-day fasting.

Without causing weight loss, effects such as improved fasting insulin have been demonstrated in both animals and humans. In line with these findings, adiponectin increases in rats and humans on both true and modified alternate-day fasting diets in the absence of calorie restriction.

Additionally, in mice, fat redistribution from visceral to subcutaneous stores has been observed despite unaltered overall body weight.

If this effect proves to be true in human subjects it could propose reduced disease risk despite unaltered body weight. Animal data further indicate some beneficial effects of intermittent fasting diets even without calorie restriction.

Neuronal health improvements such as resistance to excitotoxic injury have been observed. Alternate-day fasting in animals also leads to improved recovery after induced spinal cord injuries and progressive demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, in the absence of calorie restriction.

Furthermore, in animal studies, changes associated with retareded tumorgenesis, such as decreased cell proliferation rates in various cell lines and decreased incidence of lymphoma, have been observed. Whether these observations are valid in human subjects as well remains an interesting area for future research. Future research is warranted to test whether the health promoting effects described in animal studies have some validity in humans. We are in the very infancy of research on intermittent fasting in human subjects and future studies with larger sample sizes, longer durations and of better study design must be completed before any definite conclusions can be made regarding intermittent fasting and human health and the applicability to modern lifestyle.

My sincere gratitude to Staffan Lindeberg and Bengt Zöller for helping me set up the systematic search, for all the intellectually stimulating discussions and for the guidance in writing this review. The complete search term used was: Alternate day fasting and body weight, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular health in humans.

Very interesting stuff, I love that even though some of the references were a bit over my head the latin names for some illnessess and the implications of these, etc most of it was completely comprehensible eventhough it was made for medical purposes. Great summary of some of the work that has been done to date. Some more recent studies showing timing i. Keep up the nice work. Appreciate you and Berkhan sharing your work with us! Thanks for taking the time to write this up, Bojan.

It was a very nice, in-depth look at the studies surrounding IF and written in a way that can appeal to the medical-savvy people, and the general public interested in health like myself. There used to be a time when people were trained to write and communicate, and from the above article this time has clearly passed. I can see that you are using this article to try to bring people in and eventually sell them something.

The way you are approaching it wont work-unless you really think people are going to read 10, words of science crap instead of just closing your site and going elsewhere. While it may seem like jargon to you, it is the preferred lexicon for scholarly publications. Do NOT presume their level of education.

I once listened to an Immunology professor at a University complain that the only articles he could understand in Science the journal were the ones on Immunology.

Trust me; if you were to pick up and try to read a scholarly academic article outside of your field, you would react the way Jeff is reacting. Oh dear Jeff, you have clearly shown that this level of academia is lost on you. This is an excellent review of the available literature, written by a highly educated person.

This is an extremely disrespectful comment that shows your lack of intelligence. Think things through before you comment in future. It is Your comment that is extremely disrespectful comment and shows a lack of intelligence and knowledge of how many different styles there are in the world.

I have an MS in Microbiology and have been employed as a programmer and technical writer for over 25 years. Both Jeff and Notjeff seriously? Notjeff is sadly also correct. However, Audience is Everything. If you want this information to be read and understood by people who are not your thesis committee or people with an MD or PhD in your field, you need to re-write it.

This study confirms much of the anecdotal evidence that I had already heard about the possible long-term effects of intermittent fasting. Next would be the artificial sweeteners and flavorings sucralose, cocoa powder, etc. Finally, various thickeners and digestive enzymes will be listed xanthan gum, cellulose gum, Protease A-S, lactase to give texture and increase absorption by the body.

If you start see individual amino acids listed such as l-glutamine or creatine, proceed with caution! Basically, the added aminos artificially inflate the protein content of your powder and your scoop may claim on the label to provide 24 grams of protein when it actually only contains grams.

Whey protein is already a complete protein, there is no need to see any of these additional free-form amino acids listed. When and How Much? There are a number of delicious ways to utilize protein powder from smoothies to pancakes to muffins! Takeaway Whether your goals are muscle gain or fat loss, protein is critical, and whey protein is an effective supplement to add to your arsenal. Home Categories Protein Whey Protein. Whey Protein Powder Reviews.

Complete source of protein Quickly absorbed by the body Maintains lean muscle mass Enhances immune system Increases anabolic response Easy and convenient to use What is Whey Protein and Where does it come from? Types of Whey Protein There are a variety of different types of whey, and they are differentiated by the way they are processed: This is a great option for those who are lactose-intolerant Whey Protein Hydrolysate hydrolyzed whey This form of way has been pre-digested broken down to enhance absorption rates by the body and promote a greater insulin spike.

What to look for? What to watch out for? Showing product reviews from: All Time Last 12 Months Switch to Desktop Version. All trademarks are property of their respective owners. Some links may earn us advertising or sponsor fees; see our Affiliate Disclosure. Impact Whey Isolate MyProtein. Whey Protein Isolate NutraBio. Impact Whey Protein MyProtein. Furthermore, limitations in spinal rotation should be observed and worked to correct during one-arm rows and similar movements.

Lack of Machine-use during Back Training Back, perhaps more than any other muscle group, presents the highest inclination to benefit from the use of machines. Machines offer the ability to create and manipulate different resistance profiles, which is essential to optimizing hypertrophy over time.

During free weight movements, gravity causes the resistance profile to be exclusively downward. Machines allow the athlete to experience variations in resistance profiles by offering changes in resistance at the extremes of the movements. This fallacy can lead to extreme reductions in back stimulation. Fixed bars will ultimately determine stimulation as well as movement. Pulldowns offer several options with regard to handles and grip-width, which therefore leads to options in planes of motion.

Specificity and precision in grip-width is very important to optimizing stimulation. Lack of adequate width, or too much width, can lead to limitations in range of motion. If the hands are too wide, range of motion is limited during the shortened and lengthened end of the movements. If the hands are too narrow, range of motion can be displaced by the elbows, thusly leading to limitations at the shoulder. Optimal hand positioning requires that hands be positioned at slightly less than the width of the elbows while the shoulders are at 90 degrees.

These athletes will typically experience the most benefit from using a shoulder width-grip, which will transfer motion to the sagittal plane. Many individuals present an active range of motion AROM that is less than degrees, or directly above the head. This causes an undesirable amount of stimulation of the lats. This though can serve as a great tool to guide you into making informed decisions about the structure of your routine, as well as the nuances associated with optimal exercise execution.

The following are 10 techniques that are a definite catalyst to substantial quad growth. Majorly, some people are not predisposed to significantly benefitting from traditional squatting, and this begins with structure. We can look at individuals with long femurs for example. The former, bending at the hips for balance maintenance, will unknowingly place stress on the spinal extensors.

This weight displacement, in turn, takes the load and tension off of the quadriceps. We can also observe issues with ankle joint mobility.

Athletes with dorsiflexion deficits will over-pronate at the feet. This break in proper mechanics then transfers proximally to higher joints e. The above example helps to show that there are very rarely any constants with regard to exercise execution in terms of mechanical advantages to the individual.

This statement, though correct, yields the need for deeper insight. To what degree of stress and tension are these various muscle groups exposed to?

Again, this is not a constant variable and requires an analysis of each individual. Some of the aforementioned disadvantages can be overcome, to a certain degree, with minor changes in execution. Some examples include changing heel position increased dorsiflexion or plantarflexion , hip rotation coupled with stance width, and load placement.

If these manipulations have little effect, it is completely plausible, and perhaps very likely, that squats are mechanically NOT the best exercise for you. A common theme that stops people from optimizing the amount of muscular growth they experience in the lower body, comes from using a weight or resistance that is outside the realm of their functional capabilities.

Form and range of motion are often compromised when an athlete focuses on adding more weight generally this limits said athlete to under 6 reps. Focusing on time under tension and shortened rest periods between sets are key elements to more growth. Longer stimulus application i. A primary example discrediting this fallacy can be observed through leg extensions. In order to make this and other isolating movements effective, there needs to be an emphasis placed on hip positioning, tempo, joint recruitment, and range of motion.

If these points are followed correctly, leg extensions will be your best friend. Speed of the motion also needs to remain consistent throughout the sets. Utilizing the same speed at the extremes of the motion peak stretch and peak contraction , as one would throughout the rest of the movement, is vital. This will ensure maximum tension and stimulation. This concept can be explained by reviewing the anatomic structure of the knee as it pertains to quadriceps contraction.

Your knee functions much like a hinge, thus the quadriceps muscles have no way of changing knee motion aside from a single plane. Regardless of knee positioning, it is impossible to create a differentiation in muscular contraction during knee flexion.

It is often thrown around with limited understanding behind what true full range of motion is, and whether or not it is optimal to follow. If an external load influences more motion than the quadriceps can control, passive motion is experienced. This passive motion will disallow for time under tension concepts to be applied. Muscle growth aside, this can also impair joint function and mobility.

In bodybuilding, however, this has minimal purpose as the emphasis needs to be placed on hypertrophy. Lunges, in fact, are an effective movement for providing a stimulus to the lower body, especially the quadriceps if particular intentions and foot placements are observed.

There are, however, a plethora of needed prerequisites in order to make lunges optimal for muscle growth. Ankle mobility, balance, and hip strength both adduction and abduction are all key variables that are stressed to a high degree when performing lunges. If any of these are weak points for an athlete, the tension can be easily shifted, which again will eliminate time under tension optimization.

Again, this is a principal that can be applied to all body parts, but holds specific significance concerning the quadriceps. Using drop sets decreasing the weight during consecutive, nonstop sets and supersets combining two or more exercises in consecutive fashion without rest will elicit a great deal of hypertrophy. These provide the greatest amount of tension in the shortest amount of time.

The increase in fatigue response is crucial for muscle growth in the quads. Placing a priority on quad training is an effective tool in maximizing growth potential. Studies have shown that the amount of recovery time needed for a muscle does not exceed four days this is being generous and rounding up for most literature. That said, the body has no concept of a seven-day week. Keep in mind, soreness can be a sign of inflammation and quite possibly a lack in adequate nutrition.

Although there is minimal functional application, the importance of adductor strengthening movements cannot be underestimated relative to hypertrophy of the quads.

A common mistake for many bodybuilders is utilizing extended durations of aerobic cardio for fat loss. While these methods my work, they can be extremely detrimental to quadriceps muscle retention.

Extended periods of aerobic training will de-condition the anaerobic potential of the quads. Eventually, the quadriceps will attempt to adapt to this newfound aerobic stimulus, thus muscle loss will inevitably occur.

Of all the muscle-groups, hamstrings and glutes are perhaps THE most misunderstood with regard to hypertrophy training. We are all well aware of the exercises needed for maximum stimulus of the glutes and hams. Slight changes in form and execution will skyrocket your progress, so long as you make specific, anatomically sound corrections.

The hamstrings compose of four, tendon-like muscle bellies, located on the posterior of the femur. In essence, there are three primary components, all of which cross the hip joint and originate at the inferior aspect of the ishial tuberosity:. The fourth muscle belly, the short-head of the biceps femoris, is located on the distal end of the femur.

Each of the four acts in knee flexion due to their respective insertions. The aforementioned three primary muscle bellies act, not only in hip extension, but also in external rotation and adduction while in the neutral position.

The other gluteal components, the medius and minimus, are significantly smaller and less superficial. There is no specific need to discuss their functionality here for those interested in hypertrophy.

The gluteas maximus, however, functions as an external rotator, adductor, and extender of the hip joint. Moreover, it is one of the strongest muscles found in the human body. As mentioned, there are several small changes that can be purposefully implemented to change stimulation patterns, most notably with the hamstrings. Changes in hip and knee positions are the primary examples.

Being able to conceptualize the mechanical advantages and disadvantages of small changes is the key to optimizing hypertrophy. It is specifically important with these muscle groups, due to the susceptibility to injury of the knee joints or chronic wear. Both knee flexion and hip extension need to be controlled and should never exceed the depth your hips are able to concentrically flex. Glute work, and to a much greater degree, hamstring work, is often identified through isolation movements.

There are in reality though a surplus of ways to increase or decrease the force load and tension on these muscle groups during compound movements typically thought of as quadriceps exercises such as leg presses, squats, and lunges. The prime alteration will come in the form of foot placement high vs.

The amount of tension placed on the hamstrings and glutes vs. The higher the feet are placed, the more hamstring and glute activity will typically be experienced. Furthermore, the aspect of intentional force e. Since there is the added element of free weights, traditional barbell squats prove to be more difficult to shift focus from one muscle-group to another.

In order to appropriately plan your form, it is important to consider your structural makeup. Those who disregard this often fail to reach the lower portion of the active range of motion. In addition to a wider stance, outward rotation of the hips can greatly increase the amount of glute and hamstring stimulation. Lunges are a staple for many bodybuilders trying to get the most out of their posterior lower- body. Unfortunately, many fail to execute this movement in an optimal way, and hence end up placing too much emphasis on the quadriceps.

A primary concern with lunges focuses around the prerequisites of ankle mobility and abduction strength. If these two areas are lacking, the lunge will be largely ineffective with regards to targeting the glutes and hamstrings.

It is recommended to implement single leg-abduction movements into your regular workout protocol. A phenomenal way to further accentuate the focus to the glutes and hams is to halt movement at the top of each rep during walking lunges and simultaneously drive the hips back.

This presents us with stiff-legged deadlifts to alleviate the issue of quad-dominance. This deadlift alteration works to remove resistance away from the hips, thereby placing the desired emphasis on the glutes and hamstrings though increased contraction throughout the range of motion. It is recommended to keep a slight knee bend whilst maintaining this exact bend throughout execution in order to alleviate undue stress on the knees and allow the hamstrings to have greater force production near the bottom of the rep.

Similarly to a traditional deadlift, keeping the bar or dumbbells near the shins will lower the amount of resistance at the trunk, creating a much more accommodating resistance profile. With free-weights, there will be a reduction in resistance at the top of the movement to zero. In order to change the firing patterns at the extreme, experiment with cable and attachment variations. Sticking out the glutes, as opposed to swinging with the back, while attempting to kick the legs through the leg pad will account for emphasis on the glutes and hamstrings.

The most effective way to isolate the hamstrings in this movement calls for bodily control. Brace the body using the arms and keep constant abdominal contraction to a degree. The more that the gastrocnemius can be lengthened through dorsiflexion, the more effectively the hamstrings can be targeted. The number one concern with this movement is observable through anterior pelvic tilt.

It is difficult to manipulate at times, but it can be effectively done. Again, abdominal contraction will help to keep the glutes from coming up, which keep tension on the hamstrings, so too driving the hips into the pad throughout. The execution of this movement is similar in terms of intent and hip control as the lying leg curl. Keep certain to eliminate trunk rotation that results in lumbar spine extension. The underlying theme of the above is that the focus on hamstring and glute development comes from exercise execution, not from exercise selection.

Although each movement presents pros and cons in terms of hypertrophy, small manipulations can effectively alter resistance loads and firing patterns.

Moreover, there is a great deal of misinformation littering the internet and training facilities alike. The primary muscle group targeted for building a massive chest is the Pectoralis Major. This presents the bulk of the muscle tissue and attaches from your sternum, the medial third of your clavicle and the cartilage of your ribs, to the humerus at the greater tubercle.

The main function of the Pectoralis Major is horizontal adduction of the humerus i. It also functions in internal rotation of the arm turning the hands and arms inward. There are additional functions found in the ability to flex your arm in the sagittal plane, which is executed by the upper fibers. Muscle fibers, though varying by individual, are clustered within a relatively small percent range which remains consistent throughout the population.

This information allows us to make informed decisions regarding the loads to apply during training. Never underestimate the importance of control with exercise execution. Somewhat slow movements are an absolute must in order to apply the desired intentions and stimulation to a particular area, all the while reducing the possibility of injury at least when learning a new movement pattern.

Slow tempo and lighter resistance should be implemented from the beginning to ensure movement patterns are being executed correctly. Once you have the movement nailed, you can progress to a fast concentric. A training regimen that utilizes free weights, machines, and cables will provide the trainee with several variances in coordination and function of the muscles being worked.

Even slight changes can shift force loads to other body parts e. In order to appropriately determine the most effective ROM, we must take into account risks and benefits associated with each movement. This involves using the antagonist group thus for chest, we will utilize the muscles involved with pulling backwards to determine how far your body will allow your muscle groups and joints to go without added resistance. The point at which the objects in your hands stop parallel without a shift in body position , is the point that will serve as the extreme for your ROM.

This will allow an individual to alleviate stress from the front delt, thus an increase in chest activation. Shoulder position is perhaps the number one deterrent from chest activation, if incorrect positioning is selected. Scapula manipulation is extremely important to ensure optimal positioning. Some trainees at an advanced level are able to control this scapula movement during the process of a given exercise. The scapula, which moves naturally through protraction and retraction, can be controlled through proper intention and focus.

A common practice which works great for those athletes who have deficiencies in rib-cage depth is to completely retract the scapula during any chest movement. This is a common trait that many powerlifters exhibit and can drastically change the angle of humerus movement.

When pressing, internal rotation of the glenohumeral joint is unavoidable. When using dumbbells or utilizing flye motions, one will have the option to rotate out at the glenohumeral joint.

Staying in constant internal rotation places a large degree of stress and emphasis on the upper chest. Often times, we are able to pinpoint improper chest mechanics to be a manifestation of an incorrect breathing technique. Although exhalation is ideal during the concentric portion of an exercise, shallow breaths are a vital weapon for those looking to maximize hypertrophy in the chest.

Despite being unable to target particular lateral regions of the pecs, as described above, there is a great deal of importance that needs to be stressed concerning changing the stress load as it pertains to the shoulder joint. Although it is important to consider range of motion during all exercises, chest training in particular stresses different levels of resistance throughout different parts of the movement. It is ideal, then, to stay within the parameters of maximum resistance for each movement when training.

A primary example would be to analyze two different flye movements — dumbbell flyes which have zero resistance when the dumbbell is above the shoulder at the shortened end, and great resistance at the fully lengthened end of the movement versus cable flyes which present the opposite resistance profile. In order to properly perform movements involving chest stimulation, one must fully understand the resistance profile of each to ensure optimal results.

Below are a list of common exercises that are NOT optimal for pec involvement not to say they should never be used though as well as alternatives for each:. Dips are comparable to an extreme decline press, as the arms are in the sagittal plane and thus, the fibers of the pecs are not in a position to receive massive stimulation. Passing beyond the active range of motion which is extremely common will place undue stress on the shoulders. Instead of attempting to manipulate this movement to be more effective, it is often recommended to try a different exercise, most notably Decline Cable Presses.

To do so, use a decline bench degrees and place it in a narrow cable tower. The cables should be approximately degrees of abduction at the shoulders. This movement drastically decreases GH joint stress and has far greater emphasis on the pec when compared to dips. Cable Crossovers as typically seen performed! Other mistakes include standing too far in front of the cables, protracting the shoulders far too early, and not keeping the cables in line with the arms.

A movement alternative from typical execution is to place the cables slightly below the shoulders. Performing a flye movement, the hands should be slightly below parallel to the ground to start, and during peak contraction, should be slightly above shoulder level. This also calls for trunk stabilization though, and one should make a conscious effort to improve strength in that area if it is a weakness. As a general statement, most free weight exercises for chest present similar resistance profiles.

As aforementioned, dumbbell flyes present resistance profiles that are non-existent at the top of the movement. Proper execution in order to stimulate the pecs at the weakest point can increase injury risk and moreover become repetitive concerning resistance profiles, if your chest training is composed of entirely free weight movements.

A great alternative would be a seated flye machine which adds resistance at the top fully shortened end of the movement. Creating an optimal chest routine requires a careful analysis of the fundamentals presented above. Perhaps the most universal of all physique goals includes a burning desire to get bigger arms. After all, nothing screams masculinity or in some cases, powerful femininity, ladies ; louder than a pair of shredded, veiny, and bulging arms.

There are few secrets when it comes to anything in physique enhancement, especially not when it comes to blasting arms. Do we split them up?

Devote a day to both triceps and biceps together? If not, which body part s are ideal to pair them with? From a nutritional and hormonal standpoint, however, an argument can be made for pairing biceps and triceps with their functional protagonists e. If not, check out MIFoundation stat! Exercise variations are only applicable if proper biomechanics are applied.

Variance between dumbbells, cables, and barbells is essentially irrelevant unless every rep is performed the same, and each of the movement patterns particular to that exercise are followed. A fully lengthened tricep involves shoulder and elbow flexion with the arm over the head. A fully contracted tricep though, involves an extended shoulder with the hand behind the body. The split, exercise choice and range of motion they specifically target, as well as training volume are all hugely important considerations.

The logic will be added here when ready. In the meantime, this workout is available for selection. Core Power Strength is a higher volume lower frequency workout plan with only 4 sessions per week. The training sessions are long, but the lower frequency allows for recovery. Spending time where you are weak is the fastest path to increased strength.

Pay extra close attention to the prescribed sets outlining when you should hit failure during this program….

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