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Large towns were exceptions and required their surrounding hinterlands to support them with food and fuel. We are so sorry to hear about your poor experience with the delivery of your foods, the food itself, and the representative you dealt with. Allison was very helpful and courteous and was able to change my mood. On occasion it was used in upper-class kitchens in stews, but it was difficult to keep fresh in bulk and almond milk was generally used in its stead. Beef was not as common as today because raising cattle was labor-intensive, requiring pastures and feed, and oxen and cows were much more valuable as draught animals and for producing milk. But unfortunately that has resulted in minimal weight loss.
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In colder climates, however, it was usually unaffordable for the majority population, and was associated with the higher classes. The centrality of bread in religious rituals such as the Eucharist meant that it enjoyed an especially high prestige among foodstuffs. Only olive oil and wine had a comparable value, but both remained quite exclusive outside the warmer grape- and olive-growing regions.
The symbolic role of bread as both sustenance and substance is illustrated in a sermon given by Saint Augustine:. This bread retells your history … You were brought to the threshing floor of the Lord and were threshed … While awaiting catechism , you were like grain kept in the granary … At the baptismal font you were kneaded into a single dough.
In the oven of the Holy Ghost you were baked into God's true bread. The Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox Churches and their calendars had great influence on eating habits; consumption of meat was forbidden for a full third of the year for most Christians. All animal products, including eggs and dairy products but not fish , were generally prohibited during Lent and fast.
Additionally, it was customary for all citizens to fast prior to taking the Eucharist. These fasts were occasionally for a full day and required total abstinence. Both the Eastern and the Western churches ordained that feast should alternate with fast. In most of Europe, Fridays were fast days, and fasting was observed on various other days and periods, including Lent and Advent. Meat, and animal products such as milk, cheese, butter and eggs, were not allowed, only fish. The fast was intended to mortify the body and invigorate the soul, and also to remind the faster of Christ 's sacrifice for humanity.
The intention was not to portray certain foods as unclean, but rather to teach a spiritual lesson in self-restraint through abstention. During particularly severe fast days, the number of daily meals was also reduced to one. Even if most people respected these restrictions and usually made penance when they violated them, there were also numerous ways of circumventing them, a conflict of ideals and practice summarized by writer Bridget Ann Henisch:.
It is the nature of man to build the most complicated cage of rules and regulations in which to trap himself, and then, with equal ingenuity and zest, to bend his brain to the problem of wriggling triumphantly out again. Lent was a challenge; the game was to ferret out the loopholes.
While animal products were to be avoided during times of penance, pragmatic compromises often prevailed. The definition of "fish" was often extended to marine and semi-aquatic animals such as whales , barnacle geese , puffins and even beavers.
The choice of ingredients may have been limited, but that did not mean that meals were smaller. Neither were there any restrictions against moderate drinking or eating sweets. Banquets held on fish days could be splendid, and were popular occasions for serving illusion food that imitated meat, cheese and eggs in various ingenious ways; fish could be moulded to look like venison and fake eggs could be made by stuffing empty egg shells with fish roe and almond milk and cooking them in coals.
While Byzantine church officials took a hard-line approach, and discouraged any culinary refinement for the clergy, their Western counterparts were far more lenient. During Lent, kings and schoolboys, commoners and nobility, all complained about being deprived of meat for the long, hard weeks of solemn contemplation of their sins.
At Lent, owners of livestock were even warned to keep an eye out for hungry dogs frustrated by a "hard siege by Lent and fish bones". The trend from the 13th century onward was toward a more legalistic interpretation of fasting. Nobles were careful not to eat meat on fast days, but still dined in style; fish replaced meat, often as imitation hams and bacon; almond milk replaced animal milk as an expensive non-dairy alternative; faux eggs made from almond milk were cooked in blown-out eggshells, flavoured and coloured with exclusive spices.
In some cases the lavishness of noble tables was outdone by Benedictine monasteries, which served as many as sixteen courses during certain feast days. Exceptions from fasting were frequently made for very broadly defined groups.
Since the sick were exempt from fasting, there often evolved the notion that fasting restrictions only applied to the main dining area, and many Benedictine friars would simply eat their fast day meals in what was called the misericord at those times rather than the refectory. Medieval society was highly stratified. In a time when famine was commonplace and social hierarchies were often brutally enforced, food was an important marker of social status in a way that has no equivalent today in most developed countries.
According to the ideological norm, society consisted of the three estates of the realm: The relationship between the classes was strictly hierarchical, with the nobility and clergy claiming worldly and spiritual overlordship over commoners.
Within the nobility and clergy there were also a number of ranks ranging from kings and popes to dukes , bishops and their subordinates, such as priests. One was expected to remain in one's social class and to respect the authority of the ruling classes.
Political power was displayed not just by rule, but also by displaying wealth. Nobles dined on fresh game seasoned with exotic spices, and displayed refined table manners; rough laborers could make do with coarse barley bread, salt pork and beans and were not expected to display etiquette. Even dietary recommendations were different: The digestive system of a lord was held to be more discriminating than that of his rustic subordinates and demanded finer foods.
In the late Middle Ages, the increasing wealth of middle class merchants and traders meant that commoners began emulating the aristocracy, and threatened to break down some of the symbolic barriers between the nobility and the lower classes.
The response came in two forms: Medical science of the Middle Ages had a considerable influence on what was considered healthy and nutritious among the upper classes. One's lifestyle—including diet, exercise, appropriate social behavior, and approved medical remedies—was the way to good health, and all types of food were assigned certain properties that affected a person's health.
All foodstuffs were also classified on scales ranging from hot to cold and moist to dry, according to the four bodily humours theory proposed by Galen that dominated Western medical science from late Antiquity until the 17th century.
Medieval scholars considered human digestion to be a process similar to cooking. The processing of food in the stomach was seen as a continuation of the preparation initiated by the cook. In order for the food to be properly "cooked" and for the nutrients to be properly absorbed, it was important that the stomach be filled in an appropriate manner.
Easily digestible foods would be consumed first, followed by gradually heavier dishes. If this regimen were not respected it was believed that heavy foods would sink to the bottom of the stomach, thus blocking the digestion duct, so that food would digest very slowly and cause putrefaction of the body and draw bad humours into the stomach. It was also of vital importance that food of differing properties not be mixed.
Before a meal, the stomach would preferably be "opened" with an apéritif from Latin aperire , "to open" that was preferably of a hot and dry nature: As the stomach had been opened, it should then be "closed" at the end of the meal with the help of a digestive, most commonly a dragée , which during the Middle Ages consisted of lumps of spiced sugar, or hypocras , a wine flavoured with fragrant spices, along with aged cheese.
A meal would ideally begin with easily digestible fruit, such as apples. It would then be followed by vegetables such as lettuce , cabbage , purslane , herbs, moist fruits, light meats, such as chicken or goat kid , with potages and broths. After that came the "heavy" meats, such as pork and beef , as well as vegetables and nuts, including pears and chestnuts, both considered difficult to digest. It was popular, and recommended by medical expertise, to finish the meal with aged cheese and various digestives.
The most ideal food was that which most closely matched the humour of human beings, i. Food should preferably also be finely chopped, ground, pounded and strained to achieve a true mixture of all the ingredients.
White wine was believed to be cooler than red and the same distinction was applied to red and white vinegar. Milk was moderately warm and moist, but the milk of different animals was often believed to differ. Egg yolks were considered to be warm and moist while the whites were cold and moist.
Skilled cooks were expected to conform to the regimen of humoral medicine. Even if this limited the combinations of food they could prepare, there was still ample room for artistic variation by the chef. The caloric content and structure of medieval diet varied over time, from region to region, and between classes. However, for most people, the diet tended to be high-carbohydrate, with most of the budget spent on, and the majority of calories provided by, cereals and alcohol such as beer.
Even though meat was highly valued by all, lower classes often could not afford it, nor were they allowed by the church to consume it every day. In one early 15th-century English aristocratic household for which detailed records are available that of the Earl of Warwick , gentle members of the household received a staggering 3.
In the household of Henry Stafford in , gentle members received 2. In monasteries, the basic structure of the diet was laid down by the Rule of Saint Benedict in the 7th century and tightened by Pope Benedict XII in , but as mentioned above monks were adept at "working around" these rules.
This was circumvented in part by declaring that offal , and various processed foods such as bacon , were not meat. Secondly, Benedictine monasteries contained a room called the misericord , where the Rule of Saint Benedict did not apply, and where a large number of monks ate.
Each monk would be regularly sent either to the misericord or to the refectory. When Pope Benedict XII ruled that at least half of all monks should be required to eat in the refectory on any given day, monks responded by excluding the sick and those invited to the abbot's table from the reckoning.
The overall caloric intake is subject to some debate. As a consequence of these excesses, obesity was common among upper classes. The regional specialties that are a feature of early modern and contemporary cuisine were not in evidence in the sparser documentation that survives. Instead, medieval cuisine can be differentiated by the cereals and the oils that shaped dietary norms and crossed ethnic and, later, national boundaries. Geographical variation in eating was primarily the result of differences in climate, political administration, and local customs that varied across the continent.
Though sweeping generalizations should be avoided, more or less distinct areas where certain foodstuffs dominated can be discerned. In the British Isles , northern France , the Low Countries , the northern German-speaking areas, Scandinavia and the Baltic , the climate was generally too harsh for the cultivation of grapes and olives. In the south, wine was the common drink for both rich and poor alike though the commoner usually had to settle for cheap second pressing wine while beer was the commoner's drink in the north and wine an expensive import.
Citrus fruits though not the kinds most common today and pomegranates were common around the Mediterranean. Dried figs and dates were available in the north, but were used rather sparingly in cooking. Olive oil was a ubiquitous ingredient in Mediterranean cultures, but remained an expensive import in the north where oils of poppy , walnut, hazel and filbert were the most affordable alternatives.
Butter and lard , especially after the terrible mortality during the Black Death made them less scarce, were used in considerable quantities in the northern and northwestern regions, especially in the Low Countries. Almost universal in middle and upper class cooking all over Europe was the almond , which was in the ubiquitous and highly versatile almond milk , which was used as a substitute in dishes that otherwise required eggs or milk, though the bitter variety of almonds came along much later.
In Europe there were typically two meals a day: The two-meal system remained consistent throughout the late Middle Ages. Smaller intermediate meals were common, but became a matter of social status, as those who did not have to perform manual labor could go without them. For practical reasons, breakfast was still eaten by working men, and was tolerated for young children, women, the elderly and the sick.
Because the church preached against gluttony and other weaknesses of the flesh, men tended to be ashamed of the weak practicality of breakfast. Lavish dinner banquets and late-night reresopers from Occitan rèire-sopar , "late supper" with considerable amounts of alcoholic beverage were considered immoral.
The latter were especially associated with gambling, crude language, drunkenness, and lewd behavior. As with almost every part of life at the time, a medieval meal was generally a communal affair.
The entire household, including servants, would ideally dine together. To sneak off to enjoy private company was considered a haughty and inefficient egotism in a world where people depended very much on each other. When possible, rich hosts retired with their consorts to private chambers where the meal could be enjoyed in greater exclusivity and privacy.
Being invited to a lord's chambers was a great privilege and could be used as a way to reward friends and allies and to awe subordinates. It allowed lords to distance themselves further from the household and to enjoy more luxurious treats while serving inferior food to the rest of the household that still dined in the great hall. At major occasions and banquets, however, the host and hostess generally dined in the great hall with the other diners.
However, it can be assumed there were no such extravagant luxuries as multiple courses , luxurious spices or hand-washing in scented water in everyday meals.
Things were different for the wealthy. Before the meal and between courses, shallow basins and linen towels were offered to guests so they could wash their hands, as cleanliness was emphasized. Social codes made it difficult for women to uphold the ideal of immaculate neatness and delicacy while enjoying a meal, so the wife of the host often dined in private with her entourage or ate very little at such feasts.
She could then join dinner only after the potentially messy business of eating was done. Overall, fine dining was a predominantly male affair, and it was uncommon for anyone but the most honored of guests to bring his wife or her ladies-in-waiting. The hierarchical nature of society was reinforced by etiquette where the lower ranked were expected to help the higher, the younger to assist the elder, and men to spare women the risk of sullying dress and reputation by having to handle food in an unwomanly fashion.
Shared drinking cups were common even at lavish banquets for all but those who sat at the high table , as was the standard etiquette of breaking bread and carving meat for one's fellow diners. Food was mostly served on plates or in stew pots, and diners would take their share from the dishes and place it on trenchers of stale bread, wood or pewter with the help of spoons or bare hands.
In lower-class households it was common to eat food straight off the table. Knives were used at the table, but most people were expected to bring their own, and only highly favored guests would be given a personal knife. A knife was usually shared with at least one other dinner guest, unless one was of very high rank or well-acquainted with the host. Forks for eating were not in widespread usage in Europe until the early modern period , and early on were limited to Italy.
Even there it was not until the 14th century that the fork became common among Italians of all social classes. The change in attitudes can be illustrated by the reactions to the table manners of the Byzantine princess Theodora Doukaina in the late 11th century.
She was the wife of Domenico Selvo , the Doge of Venice , and caused considerable dismay among upstanding Venetians. The foreign consort's insistence on having her food cut up by her eunuch servants and then eating the pieces with a golden fork shocked and upset the diners so much that there was a claim that Peter Damian , Cardinal Bishop of Ostia , later interpreted her refined foreign manners as pride and referred to her as " All types of cooking involved the direct use of fire.
Kitchen stoves did not appear until the 18th century, and cooks had to know how to cook directly over an open fire. Ovens were used, but they were expensive to construct and only existed in fairly large households and bakeries.
It was common for a community to have shared ownership of an oven to ensure that the bread baking essential to everyone was made communal rather than private. There were also portable ovens designed to be filled with food and then buried in hot coals, and even larger ones on wheels that were used to sell pies in the streets of medieval towns. But for most people, almost all cooking was done in simple stewpots, since this was the most efficient use of firewood and did not waste precious cooking juices, making potages and stews the most common dishes.
This was considered less of a problem in a time of back-breaking toil, famine, and a greater acceptance—even desirability—of plumpness; only the poor or sick, and devout ascetics , were thin. Fruit was readily combined with meat, fish and eggs. The recipe for Tart de brymlent , a fish pie from the recipe collection Forme of Cury , includes a mix of figs , raisins , apples and pears with fish salmon , codling or haddock and pitted damson plums under the top crust.
This meant that food had to be "tempered" according to its nature by an appropriate combination of preparation and mixing certain ingredients, condiments and spices; fish was seen as being cold and moist, and best cooked in a way that heated and dried it, such as frying or oven baking, and seasoned with hot and dry spices; beef was dry and hot and should therefore be boiled ; pork was hot and moist and should therefore always be roasted.
In a recipe for quince pie, cabbage is said to work equally well, and in another turnips could be replaced by pears. The completely edible shortcrust pie did not appear in recipes until the 15th century. Before that the pastry was primarily used as a cooking container in a technique known as ' huff paste '. Extant recipe collections show that gastronomy in the Late Middle Ages developed significantly.
New techniques, like the shortcrust pie and the clarification of jelly with egg whites began to appear in recipes in the late 14th century and recipes began to include detailed instructions instead of being mere memory aids to an already skilled cook.
In most households, cooking was done on an open hearth in the middle of the main living area, to make efficient use of the heat. This was the most common arrangement, even in wealthy households, for most of the Middle Ages, where the kitchen was combined with the dining hall.
Towards the Late Middle Ages a separate kitchen area began to evolve. The first step was to move the fireplaces towards the walls of the main hall, and later to build a separate building or wing that contained a dedicated kitchen area, often separated from the main building by a covered arcade.
This way, the smoke, odors and bustle of the kitchen could be kept out of sight of guests, and the fire risk lessened. Many basic variations of cooking utensils available today, such as frying pans , pots , kettles , and waffle irons , already existed, although they were often too expensive for poorer households. Other tools more specific to cooking over an open fire were spits of various sizes, and material for skewering anything from delicate quails to whole oxen.
Utensils were often held directly over the fire or placed into embers on tripods. To assist the cook there were also assorted knives, stirring spoons, ladles and graters. Lose Weight Fast with Nutrisystem.
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At a cookout it would be a burger or chicken with no bread, and a tossed salad or veggie. You CAN do it. You just have to order carefully. I wish you luck. You can do, I know you can. It is so nice to read a positive article about Nutrisystem. You are so right about your body becoming used to the smaller portions. Like anything, your body goes through an adjustment period, but after a few days, it is quite easy. With frequent snacks between meals, as well as plenty of fluids, you are eating pretty much whenever you feel hungry.
Hi, thanks for the great review! Thanks for the nice comment: Excited to hear how Nutrisystem goes for you — let us know!
Hi Ellen — You definitely need to talk with your doctor before trying Nutrisystem or any weight loss plan with your health issues, but they do offer a plan for people with diabetes.
I would recommend checking out their site to learn more about the different plans they offer. They also offer snacks and shakes as options over the course of the day, so that helps with the extra cravings too. Hope that helps, and best of luck with your weight loss journey! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to give it a look.
Exceptional blog and brilliant design and style. Thanks for the kind words and for visiting the site — let me know your Twitter handle so I can return the favor!
Those first 2 weeks i dropped 13 lbs, but that third week i lost maybe 1 lb. I was only eating the provided meals the first two weeks usually around only calories per day obviously that was unhealthy, so i added in a few snacks to put me right around calories per day. But unfortunately that has resulted in minimal weight loss. Did you have plateaus like this? And how did you over come these stalls? I did just purchase an elliptical and also a stationary bike, but only on day 2 with those.
Your review was wonderful and very well written, so thank you! Hi Julie- Thank you so much for sharing your story, and way to go for making it through your first month! I think the calorie restriction is the hardest part about Nutrisystem, and why now I typically only do the diet for a month or two and then really focus on just eating right and getting enough exercise after that. For me, the approach after Nutrisystem has been intermittent fasting IF. That said, I have had a lot of success with it, and find that I can maintain a healthy weight for long stretches of time when using it.
I started with the turbo charge and continued now for almost 3 weeks. I have only lost 3 lbs. When I emailed a counselor they said that was normal and I was doing well. Big hope very disappointed. In any case, hope the rest of your month goes well, and best of luck moving forward. I just started Nutrisystem.
I always lost weight on the low carb diet when I was younger. But the fat intake was not good. Just to avoid all the carbs… Did you or anyone else have a issue with how many carbs are in each meal? Is this ok lol… Please someone assure me all the carbs are ok! Thanks for visting, and best of luck with your first month! Thanks for the excellent review and videos. Excited to see what kind of progress I can make.
Hi Krystal — thanks for visiting the site, and taking the time to read my review and watch the videos. Always happy to hear that it helped! Thanks for the great info and for sharing your story! Thanks for the kind words, June! Congrats on taking the first step and best of luck with Nutrisystem — hope it goes well! I mastered more new things on this fat reduction issue. An enormous reduction in junk food, sugary foods, fried foods, sugary foods, beef, and white flour products may perhaps be necessary.
Holding wastes unwanted organisms, and wastes may prevent ambitions for fat-loss. While specific drugs for the short term solve the situation, the unpleasant side effects are certainly not worth it, plus they never present more than a short-term solution.
Many thanks sharing your thinking on this weblog. Thanks for the input Saul. Have you ever considered creating an ebook or guest authoring about Nutrisystem on other sites? I know my readers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an email. Hi Lance — I actually do have an eBook in the works, so stay tuned for that!
I just wanted to say that this post is awesome, well written and lots of useful Nutrisystem info. Looking forward to my first shipment. Hi Corburt — Thanks for the kind words, and best of luck with your first month — hope it goes well!
I just wanted to offer you a huge thumbs up for the great information you have right here on this post. I will be returning to your site for more soon! This blog looks exactly like my old one! Great choice of colors! Really inspired by your story — thanks for sharing! I am planning to start Nutrisystem after the New Year.
Hi Erin — Thanks so much for the positive feedback. The first time I ever used Nutrisytem, which was many years ago at this point, I think I was one it for 4 months. I had a lot more weight to lose then; now when I sign up, I usually use it for a month, maybe two at the most. To lock in the auto delivery deal, you have to commit to two months, so if you hit your weight loss goals after month 1, I recommend switching your order to just the Turbo Shakes — that will ensure you lock in the most savings, and also helps to keep you on track once you start transitioning off the program.
As I have said before, you have to be committed to the program to get results, but as long as you follow their plan you will lose weight! Anyways, best of luck and please let us know how it goes: Thanks for sharing your story. Drinking over ounces and eating tons of leafy greens. I did NS about 4 years ago lost almost This past July was told my chloerstral and blood pressure was too high for 28 year old.
So black Friday I ordered when prices decreased. Hi Amanda — Thanks for visiting and reading my story. Hope it goes as well this time around. Thanks for sharing your superb review.
You have a lot of good info here. I am looking for a diet to try just after the new year, and this might be the one. Either way, appreciate all of the details you shared.
Thanks, just what I was looking for. I have about 20 pounds to lose — is this doable in a month or two? Hi Sam — Thanks for the positive feedback.
Losing 20 pounds is definitely doable with Nutrisystem, but I would budget at least two months. I signed up for Nutrisystem this week, and I am really hoping that I have the same results. I think my first shipment should arrive just before Christmas, so think I will get started right after the holiday. Thanks so much for the review — definitely gives me hope! Hi Kris — congrats on signing up — while results will vary for everyone, I truly believe that you will lose a lot of weight if you follow the program — so stick with it, and let us know how it goes.
They try to rip you off when quit their auto delivery program. Very very unpleasant people to deal with. They shipped me stuff 3 days after I had already cancelled and had a confirmation number stating I cancelled. They refused to turn the shipment around or to take it back and are trying to create some kind of lie that I created a 2nd account in November and they only cancelled one account. The only thing I did in November was update my credit card expiration date which I regret. If I guaranteed no more shipments are coming to my name or my address that should be the end of the story, not with them!
I am fighting them through my credit card company but please be aware of whatever traps they have in store for any of you. Hi Troy — Sorry to hear that that was your experience.
It was actually a customer service rep who told me I could switch from the meal delivery to just the Turbo Shakes after my first month on the program to lock in the auto-delivery savings without having to commit to another month of food.
In any case, I hope you are able to get things resolved! I started the program today, January 1st. My resolution is to feel better about myself, but do it in a healthy way that had structure. How much and when I should be eating vegetables, and ideas on what to eat if you have to attend a social function or business based meeting that involves food. Thanks for posting a well written, and information overview of this program.
I have three questions and maybe one is a question for a NS counselor… 1. Or can tomatoes, cukes, etc. Also, plain or with some sort of dressing? How many turbo shakes can you have per week… and when can they be consumed? Thanks in advance …. Hi Tami — Thanks for stopping by and taking the time to comment!
I always add extra veggies to my greens and have found the only thing you really need to watch out for is the salad dressing. But for me, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc. I usually have my TurboShake midday — around 2: