Small Indian civet V. The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other. However, there have been confirmed reports of wolf packs killing wolverines. In the wild, surplus killing primarily occurs during late winter or spring, when snow is unusually deep thus impeding the movements of prey  or during the denning period, when wolves require a ready supply of meat when denbound. We need your help - more than ever - in helping us raise awareness to beat Parkinson's disease and ensuring a better future, today.
You are here
By the start of the 20th century, the species had almost disappeared from the eastern USA, excepting some areas of the Appalachians and the northwestern Great Lakes Region. In Canada, the gray wolf was extirpated in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia between and , and in Newfoundland around It vanished from the southern regions of Quebec and Ontario between and The gray wolf's decline in the prairies began with the extermination of the American bison and other ungulates in the s—70s.
From —, the gray wolf was virtually eliminated from the western USA and adjoining parts of Canada, because of intensive predator control programs aimed at eradicating the species. The gray wolf was exterminated by federal and state governments from all of the USA by , except in Alaska and northern Minnesota. The decline in North American wolf populations was reversed from the s to the early s, particularly in southwestern Canada, because of expanding ungulate populations resulting from improved regulation of big game hunting.
This increase triggered a resumption of wolf control in western and northern Canada. Thousands of wolves were killed from the early s to the early s, mostly by poisoning. This campaign was halted and wolf populations increased again by the mids. The species' modern range in North America is mostly confined to Alaska and Canada, with populations also occurring in northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin and Michigan 's Upper Peninsula , and small portions of Washington , Idaho , northern Oregon , and Montana.
A functional wolf population should exist in California by according to estimates by state wildlife officials. In addition, the Mexican wolf Canis lupus baileyi was reintroduced to Arizona and New Mexico in Canada is home to about 52,—60, wolves, whose legal status varies according to province and territory. First Nations residents may hunt wolves without restriction, and some provinces require licenses for residents to hunt wolves while others do not.
In Alberta , wolves on private land may be baited and hunted by the landowner without requiring a license, and in some areas, wolf hunting bounty programs exist. In Alaska, the gray wolf population is estimated at 6,—7,, and can be legally harvested during hunting and trapping seasons, with bag limits and other restrictions. As of , there are wolves in 28 packs in Yellowstone, and wolves in 25 packs in Idaho. Reintroduced Mexican wolves in Arizona and New Mexico are protected under the ESA and, as of late , number 28 individuals in eight packs.
Viral diseases carried by wolves include rabies , canine distemper , canine parvovirus , infectious canine hepatitis , papillomatosis , and canine coronavirus. Infected wolves do not show any fear of humans, with most documented wolf attacks on people being attributed to rabid animals. Although canine distemper is lethal in dogs, it has not been recorded to kill wolves, except in Canada and Alaska. The canine parvovirus, which causes death by dehydration , electrolyte imbalance , and endotoxic shock or sepsis , is largely survivable in wolves, but can be lethal to pups.
Wolves may catch infectious canine hepatitis from dogs, though there are no records of wolves dying from it. Papillomatosis has been recorded only once in wolves, and likely doesn't cause serious illness or death, though it may alter feeding behaviors. The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, with infections being most prevalent in winter months. Bacterial diseases carried by wolves include brucellosis , lyme disease , leptospirosis , tularemia , bovine tuberculosis ,  listeriosis , anthrax and foot and mouth disease.
While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. Although lyme disease can debilitate individual wolves, it does not appear to have any significant effect on wolf populations. Leptospirosis can be contracted through contact with infected prey or urine, and can cause fever , anorexia , vomiting, anemia , hematuria , icterus , and death.
Wolves living near farms are more vulnerable to the disease than those living in the wilderness, probably because of prolonged contact with infected domestic animal waste.
Wolves may catch tularemia from lagomorph prey, though its effect on wolves is unknown. Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have once killed two wolf pups in Canada. Wolves carry ectoparasites and endoparasites , with wolves in the former Soviet Union having been recorded to carry at least 50 species. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock.
Wolves are often infested with a variety of arthropod exoparasites, including fleas , ticks , lice , and mites. The most harmful to wolves, particularly pups, is Sarcoptes scabiei or mange mite ,  though they rarely develop full blown mange , unlike foxes.
Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves with Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Other ectoparasites include biting lice, sucking lice and the fleas Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides canis. Endoparasites known to infect wolves include protozoans and helminths flukes , tapeworms , roundworms and thorny-headed worms. Of 30, protozoan species, only a few have been recorded to infect wolves: Isospora , Toxoplasma , Sarcocystis , Babesia , and Giardia.
Upon reaching maturity, Alaria migrates to the wolf's intestine, but harms it little. Metorchis conjunctus , which enters wolves through eating fish, infects the wolf's liver or gall bladder, causing liver disease , inflammation of the pancreas, and emaciation. Most other fluke species reside in the wolf's intestine, though Paragonimus westermani lives in the lungs.
Tapeworms are commonly found in wolves, as their primary hosts are ungulates, small mammals, and fish, which wolves feed upon. Tapeworms generally cause little harm in wolves, though this depends on the number and size of the parasites, and the sensitivity of the host. Symptoms often include constipation , toxic and allergic reactions , irritation of the intestinal mucosa , and malnutrition. Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.
Wolves can carry over 30 roundworm species, though most roundworm infections appear benign, depending on the number of worms and the age of the host. Ancylostoma caninum attaches itself on the intestinal wall to feed on the host's blood, and can cause hyperchromic anemia , emaciation, diarrhea , and possibly death. Toxocara canis , a hookworm known to infect wolf pups in utero, can cause intestinal irritation, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Wolves can tolerate low levels of Dirofilaria immitis for many years without showing any ill effects, though high levels can kill wolves through cardiac enlargement and congestive hepatopathy. Wolves probably become infected with Trichinella spiralis by eating infected ungulates. Nicolla skrjabini , Macrocantorhynchus catulinus , and Moniliformis moniliformis.
Human presence appears to stress wolves, as seen by increased cortisol levels in instances such as snowmobiling near their territory. Old English literature contains several instances of Anglo-Saxon kings and warriors taking on wulf as a prefix or suffix in their names. Wolf-related names were also common among pre-Christian Germanic warriors: Ancient Greek literature is similar: Autolycus "the wolf itself" , Lycurgus "wolf-work".
The Latin for "female prostitute" is lupa , and the most famous brothel in Pompeii was the Lupanar. The wolf is a common motif in the foundational mythologies and cosmologies of peoples throughout Eurasia and North America corresponding to the historical extent of the habitat of the gray wolf.
The obvious attribute of the wolf is its nature of a predator , and correspondingly it is strongly associated with danger and destruction, making it the symbol of the warrior on one hand, and that of the devil on the other. The modern trope of the Big Bad Wolf is a development of this.
The wolf holds great importance in the cultures and religions of the nomadic peoples, both of the Eurasian steppe and of the North American Plains. In many cultures, the identification of the warrior with the wolf totemism gave rise to the notion of Lycanthropy , the mythical or ritual identification of man and wolf. Aesop featured wolves in several of his fables , playing on the concerns of Ancient Greece 's settled, sheep-herding world. His most famous is the fable of The Boy Who Cried Wolf , which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase " to cry wolf " is derived.
Some of his other fables concentrate on maintaining the trust between shepherds and guard dogs in their vigilance against wolves, as well as anxieties over the close relationship between wolves and dogs. Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behavior, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal.
Although portrayed as loyal, honest and moral, Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. The tale of Little Red Riding Hood , first written in by Charles Perrault , is largely considered to have had more influence than any other source of literature in forging the wolf's negative reputation in the western world. The wolf in this story is portrayed as a potential rapist , capable of imitating human speech.
Tolstoy's War and Peace and Chekhov's Peasants both feature scenes in which wolves are hunted with hounds and borzois. Although credited with having changed popular perceptions on wolves by portraying them as loving, cooperative and noble, it has been criticized for its idealization of wolves and its factual inaccuracies. The wolf is a frequent charge in English armory. It is illustrated as a supporter on the shields of Lord Welby , Rendel , and Viscount Wolseley , and can be found on the coat of arms of Lovett and the vast majority of the Wilsons and Lows.
The demi-wolf is a common crest , appearing in the arms and crests of members of many families, including that of the Wolfes , whose crest depicts a demi-wolf holding a crown in its paws, in reference to the assistance the family gave to Charles II during the battle of Worcester.
Wolf heads are common in Scottish heraldry , particularly in the coats of Clan Robertson and Skene. The wolf is the most common animal in Spanish heraldry , and is often depicted as carrying a lamb in its mouth, or across its back. It is the unofficial symbol of the spetsnaz , and serves as the logo of the Turkish Grey Wolves. Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves, and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation: Being the most abundant carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs have the greatest potential to compete with wolves.
A review of the studies in the competitive effects of dogs on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves. Wolves kill dogs on occasion, with some wolf populations relying on dogs as an important food source.
Wolves may display unusually bold behavior when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans. Large hunting dogs such as Swedish elkhounds are more likely to survive wolf attacks because of their better ability to defend themselves. Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs.
In many cultures, there are strong social and emotional bonds between humans and their dogs that can be seen as family members or working team members. The loss of a dog can lead to strong emotional responses with demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations.
Dogs that are employed to guard sheep help to mitigate human—wolf conflicts, and are often proposed as one of the non-lethal tools in the conservation of wolves. The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey. Predatory attacks attacks by wolves treating humans as food may be preceded by a long period of habituation , in which wolves gradually lose their fear of humans. The victims are repeatedly bitten on the head and face, and are then dragged off and consumed, unless the wolves are driven off.
Such attacks typically occur only locally, and do not stop until the wolves involved are eliminated. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June—August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking increase,  though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus , Kirov and Irkutsk oblasts, Karelia and Ukraine.
The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women. Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species, as wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected by animals such as dogs, jackals and foxes. Incidents of rabies in wolves are very rare in North America, though numerous in the eastern Mediterranean , Middle East and Central Asia.
Wolves apparently develop the "furious" phase of rabies to a very high degree which, coupled with their size and strength, makes rabid wolves perhaps the most dangerous of rabid animals,  with bites from rabid wolves being 15 times more dangerous than those of rabid dogs. Most rabid wolf attacks occur in the spring and autumn periods. Unlike with predatory attacks, the victims of rabid wolves are not eaten, and the attacks generally only occur on a single day.
The victims are chosen at random, though the majority of cases involve adult men. In the half-century up to , there were eight fatal attacks in Europe and Russia, and more than in south Asia.
Wolves are difficult to hunt because of their elusiveness, sharp senses, high endurance, and ability to quickly incapacitate and kill hunting dogs. This method relies heavily on the wolf's fear of human scents, though it can lose its effectiveness when wolves become accustomed to the smell. Wild wolves are sometimes kept as exotic pets and, in some rarer occasions, as working animals. Although closely related to domesticated dogs , wolves do not show the same tractability as dogs in living alongside humans, and generally, much more work is required in order to obtain the same amount of reliability.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Gray wolf. This article is about the gray wolf, canis lupus , and its subspecies.
For other species of wolf and other uses, see Wolf disambiguation. For other uses, see Grey Wolf disambiguation. Middle Pleistocene — present , years BP . Linnaeus , . Subspecies of Canis lupus. Evolution of the wolf. List of gray wolf populations by country. Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology. Wolf attacks on humans and List of wolf attacks. Wolf hunting and Wolf hunting with dogs. Human uses of hunted wolves.
Wolves as pets and working animals. However, neither dogs nor dingoes are referred to as gray wolves. Throughout this article, the term "wolf" will be used to refer collectively to naturally occurring subspecies, especially the nominate subspecies, Canis lupus lupus.
This terminology was first used in by Rudolf Schenkel of the University of Basel , who based his findings on researching the behavior of captive gray wolves. This view on gray wolf pack dynamics was later popularized by L. David Mech in his book The Wolf.
He formally disavowed this terminology in , explaining that it was heavily based on the behavior of captive packs consisting of unrelated individuals, an error reflecting the once prevailing view that wild pack formation occurred in winter among independent gray wolves. Later research on wild gray wolves revealed that the pack is usually a family consisting of a breeding pair and its offspring of the previous 1—3 years.
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Tomus I in Latin 10 ed. Retrieved November 23, Gray wolf Canis lupus and allies", in Feldhamer, George A.
Wild Mammals of North America: Grey wolf Canis lupus Linnaeus, , pp. Foxes, Wolverhampton Wanderers F. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Mammals of the Soviet Union Vol. Its Domestication and Behavior. The cautionary case of Bulgarian wolves". The Fear of Wolves: Norsk institutt for naturforskning NINA.
A contribution to the study of wolf-dog hybridization patterns". Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Retrieved June 2, A new profile for the wolf. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Walker's Mammals of the World. Electrocardiographic consequences of a peripatetic lifestyle in gray wolves Canis lupus.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: PLoS Genetics, 10 7. Comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Journal of Applied Genetics. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Archived from the original on December 14, Environmental and intrinsic correlates of stress in free-ranging wolves. PLOS One, 10 9. Decade of the Wolf: The Quarterly Review of Biology.
University of California Press. Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. The Wolves of Isle Royale. Fauna of the National Parks of the United States. Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Retrieved March 16, Social behavior of langur monkeys Presbytis entellus in a high altitude environment. Wolves Change An Ecosystem". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on January 24, Retrieved August 10, Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal Canis aureus L.
S; Andriashek, D Mashkour "Hyenas around the cities. Zoology in the Middle East. Retrieved February 20, It's a Lot Like Cats and Dogs". Mammals of the Soviet Union: Carnivora hyaenas and cats , Volume 2. Archived from the original on February 25, Wild cats of the world , University of Chicago Press, p. American Society of Mammalogists. Archived from the original PDF on June 17, In Large Carnivores and the Conservation of Biodiversity. Archived from the original PDF on March 25, Also available in German: Heinz Staffelbach, Handbuch Schweizer Alpen.
Animals in the Third Reich: The New York Times. Retrieved September 4, Kuolleissa susissa vanhoja hauleja" , Iltalehti , March 19, Retrieved May 19, Translated by Kevin White. Retrieved May 2, Retrieved November 24, Mammals of the Holy Land. Texas Tech University Press, pp.
Cultural Perspectives , Psychology Press, pp. Archived from the original PDF on July 27, Smith, Yan Xie, Robert S. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Retrieved February 9, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks.
Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on July 30, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original PDF on March 19, Retrieved January 25, Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk. Conservation Biology,16 3 , The Canadian Historical Review.
Archived from the original PDF on June 21, A Complete Guide to Heraldry. University of Oklahoma Press. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. The complex interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs Canis familiaris in a conservation context".
Wolf and dog competition in Italy. Wolf attacks on dogs in Scandinavia — Will wolves in Scandinavia go extinct if dog owners are allowed to kill a wolf attacking a dog?
Examensarbete , Institutionen för ekologi, Grimsö forskningsstation. What's New for Conserving Carnivores". What is wrong with Romanian livestock guarding dogs?
Hunting the grisly and other sketches; an account of the big game of the United States and its chase with horse, hound, and rifle , New York, London, G. Wolf and coyote trapping; an up-to-date wolf hunter's guide, giving the most successful methods of experienced "wolfers" for hunting and trapping these animals, also gives their habits in detail , Columbus, Ohio, A.
African palm civet N. Angolan slender mongoose G. Ethiopian dwarf mongoose H. Family Viverridae includes Civets. Small-toothed palm civet A. Sulawesi palm civet M. Masked palm civet P. Golden wet-zone palm civet P. Owston's palm civet C.
Hose's palm civet D. Banded palm civet H. Malabar large-spotted civet V. Small Indian civet V. Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose G. American black bear U. Molina's hog-nosed skunk C. Sunda stink badger M.
Southern spotted skunk S. Eastern lowland olingo B. Western mountain coati N. South American fur seal A. Northern fur seal C. Steller sea lion E. Australian sea lion N. South American sea lion O. New Zealand sea lion P. California sea lion Z. Northern elephant seal M. Mediterranean monk seal M. Family Canidae includes dogs.
African wild dog L. African clawless otter A. North American river otter L. Saharan striped polecat I. African striped weasel P. Hinny Lord Morton's mare Mule Zebroid. Humanzee Hybrid orangutan Koolakamba. Polecat-ferret hybrid Polecat-mink hybrid. ABC Islands bear Grizzly—polar bear hybrid. Armiger Law of heraldic arms Grant of arms Blazon. Conventional elements of coats of arms Escutcheon.
National coat of arms Arms of dominion Ecclesiastical heraldry Burgher arms Civic heraldry Canting arms Attributed arms. Dolphin Ged Seahorse Lucy esox Scallop. Bat Bee Crapaudy toad Emmet ant Serpent.
Phaleristics List of oldest heraldry Women in heraldry Socialist heraldry Vexillology. Retrieved from " https: Uses authors parameter CS1 Latin-language sources la Articles with French-language external links Webarchive template wayback links Articles with Finnish-language external links CS1 maint: Views Read View source View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies Wikiquote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Food portal Medicine portal Health portal.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. Curr Pharm Des Review. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. A systematic review in adult and paediatric population, on behalf of Italian Society of Pediatrics". Ital J Pediatr Systematic Review. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Review. An emerging body of research now demonstrates the efficacy of fermentable carbohydrate restriction in IBS.
Whether the effect on luminal bifidobacteria is clinically relevant, preventable, or long lasting, needs to be investigated. The influence on nutrient intake, dietary diversity, which might also affect the gut microbiota, and quality of life also requires further exploration as does the possible economic effects due to reduced physician contact and need for medication.
Although further work is required to confirm its place in IBS and functional bowel disorder clinical pathways, fermentable carbohydrate restriction is an important consideration for future national and international IBS guidelines. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis".
J Gastroenterol Hepatol Review. Common symptoms of IBS are bloating, abdominal pain, excessive flatus, constipation, diarrhea, or alternating bowel habit. These symptoms, however, are also common in the presentation of coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, defecatory disorders, and colon cancer.
Confirming the diagnosis is crucial so that appropriate therapy can be undertaken. Unfortunately, even in these alternate diagnoses, a change in diet restricting FODMAPs may improve symptoms and mask the fact that the correct diagnosis has not been made. This is the case with coeliac disease where a low-FODMAP diet can concurrently reduce dietary gluten, improving symptoms, and also affecting coeliac diagnostic indices. Misdiagnosis of intestinal diseases can lead to secondary problems such as nutritional deficiencies, cancer risk, or even mortality in the case of colon cancer.
World Gastroenterology Organisation Global Guidelines. Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 4 June Advanced Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Enzyme therapy can help reduce symptoms in IBS patients sensitive to galacto-oligosaccharides GOS present in legumes, soy milk and nuts".
Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original PDF on 14 December Retrieved 16 May Furthermore, the practicality of maintaining these interventions over long periods of time is doubtful. At a practical level, adherence to defined diets may result in an unnecessary financial burden or reduction in overall caloric intake in patients who are already at risk for protein-calorie malnutrition.
J Agric Food Chem. J Hum Nutr Diet. Human nutritions and healthy diets. Omnivore Entomophagy Pescetarian Plant-based. Bodybuilding supplements Meal replacement Therapeutic food. Liquid diets Very low calorie. Category Commons Cookbook Food portal, Health and fitness portal. Irritable bowel syndrome IBS. Gut—brain axis Hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis Sympathetic nervous system.
Retrieved from " https: