The Ketogenic Diet: A Detailed Beginner's Guide to Keto

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The Truth About Hormones in Milk

Since soy contains no IGF-1, the rise must have been due to it being able to boost the pituitary production. Generally it seems that our own production of IGF-1 is dependent on our intake of protein [12]. Whether this comes from animals or plants is irrelevant, and it is reasonable to believe that a low production of IGF-1 is a sign of malnutrition — especially in the elderly [13].

But why are we so concerned about IGF-1 at all? Basic scientific misunderstandings are at the root of most health myths. When it comes to disease, one of the most predominant is, that complex diseases have a single cause. Many believe that diabetes is caused by sugar or even carbohydrate intake, that salt is the cause of high blood pressure, and that IGF-1 causes cancer.

But cancer — as with any of the aforementioned ailments — is a multifactorial disease [14] and any form of cancer is most likely caused by a host of interconnected factors. So when someone claims that one thing — for instance growth hormone or IGF-1 is the cause of cancer — it is always untrue and easy to disprove.

What we know is that a high level of circulating IGF-1 might increase the risk of one type of cancer in the prostate — not cancer in general. That high IGF-1 levels might promote a single type of cancer is a hypothesis, not a fact, and under all circumstances a growth factor as this one would most likely only play a part of an intricate confluence of factors.

Most claims that IGF-1 is the primary cause of any cancer is based on cell studies, which can never be relied upon to establish cause and effect in the complex interactions inside the human body. Cell studies can only give rise to hypotheses or help to explain the mechanisms behind and observed correlation that can be subsequently tested in further scientific studies. These scientific studies have been done and they show among other things that even when the contents of IGF-1 in the blood is raised a bit, the intake of low fat dairy milk is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer — in particular in people with a high level of circulating IGF-1 in the blood [15].

This is the exact opposite result of the hypothesis that milk consumption causes cancer in general and, in the context of the mentioned article, that this process is driven primarily by IGF In the end our primary concern is to know whether certain foods increase the risk of cancer — and not whether certain components of our food does so in isolation or in a petri dish. Before describing what we actually know about the connection between milk and cancer, we have to first turn our eyes to the last group of milk hormones: A lot of the milk that we drink comes from pregnant cows and as with humans, this means that the levels of circulating estrogens are higher than normal.

Since that which happens in the blood is usually mirrored in the milk — in cows as in humans — the milk of cows pregnant in the third trimester contains as much as twenty times as much estrogen found in milk from non-pregnant cows. A new study in mice [16] tested whether the amount of estrogens found in regular dairy milk from pregnant cows had any effect on the circulating levels of estrogens and the genitals of the mice.

After that, the mice were given times as much estrogen as they had found in the milk samples with the highest amount of estrogen. Only when the amount of estrogen reached times the amount found in milk, it became possible to detect effects on the blood and genitals. This observation is really no mystery: Everything that we absorb across the gastrointestinal membrane is transported directly to the liver through the portal vein system before it enters the general circulation.

That the liver is so effective at metabolizing steroid hormones is also the primary reason that bodybuilders usually have to inject steroids instead of ingesting them. If they do ingest them it is because the steroids have been chemically modified to be able to resist the passage through the intestines and liver, which is also the reason why ingestible steroids can have a toxic effect on the liver [18]. And that is really the real question we want answered — not whether certain hormones could theoretically raise our risk of cancer.

If there was any strong evidence that milk raised the risk of cancer in general, it would be listed at the top of every article on the internet trying to persuade you or scare from drinking milk. You would see meta analyses of studies on milk that showed a clear connection between milk and cancer.

Circumstantial evidence is ok to base our beliefs in when we have no other alternative. But we do have alternatives. Figuring out of there is a connection between a specific food and cancer is much harder than many people assume.

Even if we observe an association, it is not safe to assume that the one thing causes the other — it might as well be the other way around this is called reverse causality — which probably explains why artificially sweetened beverages and obesity are correlated [19] or it could be something else entirely that causes both the exposure and the outcome this is called a confounder. Observe that an exposure and an outcome that seems connected, does not mean that one thing caused the other.

When it comes to research into what raises the risk of cancer, we usually have nothing else than observations like these to go on. We cannot make longitudinal controlled studies because it would be utterly unethical to try to actively provoke cancer in a group of people and if we did and saw even a small rise in cancer incidence, we would have to end the study immediately.

So how can we know whether something causes cancer or not? In Sir Austin Bradford Hill developed a set of criteria [20] that needs to be fulfilled for a causality between an assumed cause and effect to be established.

The Bradford Hill-criteria in summary looks like this:. A good example of an association that fulfills the Bradford Hill-criteria is smoking and lung cancer. The observed period of time between first exposure and the appearance of diagnosable cancer is congruent with what we would expect.

There is a clear dose-response relationship more cigarettes lead to higher risk and there is a good explanation to what we observe, since cigarette smoke contains a long range of strong mutagens that is carcinogenic in both animal and cell studies. To the best of my knowledge there is not a single food that fulfills the Bradford Hill-criteria for causality. To be able to claim that milk increases the risk of cancer, it would take among other things that milk consumption was consistently correlated with a marked increased risk of cancer and that this effect was dose dependent.

Different studies point in different directions and with some types of cancers it seems like it is protecting against that specific type of cancer but seems to promote other types of cancer. At least that is the focal point of the articles that through blatantly selective presentation of the literature reveals themselves as anti-milk ideologues. Maybe the observed correlations are causal.

Maybe milk plays a small part in both protecting against some cancers, and promoting others. But it is factually wrong to hardheadedly claim that milk causes cancer. The criteria to claim causality simply are not there. A current systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies on milk consumption and mortality showed, that milk neither lowers or raises the overall risk of death neither before time or by cardiovascular disease or cancer [25].

So milk in all likelihood is not relevant to worry about when it comes to cancer in humans. And that is perfectly fine because we have other things to worry about — such as smoking, alcohol and obesity — if we really are interested in lowering our risk of getting cancer. First of all, it is inflamed because there exists a plethora of truly horrifying untruths n articles, magazines and books. These untruths about milk, hormones and cancer is convincing enough to fool even reasonable and rational people.

I was myself once fooled by them. Therefore I would never dream of judging others for believing the same untruths nor for sharing them.

Because if it was indeed true that milk was chock-full of hormones that gave us cancer it would be amoral to not shout this information from the rooftops and demand that health professionals took action.

The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes , and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. There are also four diploid species with 24 chromosomes: There are two triploid species with 36 chromosomes: There is one pentaploid cultivated species with 60 chromosomes: There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: Enriching and preserving the gene bank collection to make potatoes adaptive to diverse environmental conditions is seen as a pressing issue due to climate change.

Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources, although at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri , naturally ranges from Peru into Texas, where it is used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes.

A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum , as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease. Potatoes yield abundantly with little effort, and adapt readily to diverse climates as long as the climate is cool and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers.

Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are vulnerable to moulds that feed on the stored tubers and quickly turn them rotten, whereas crops such as grain can be stored for several years with a low risk of rot. The yield of Calories per acre about 9. There are close to 4, varieties of potato including common commercial varieties, each of which has specific agricultural or culinary attributes.

For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness: The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two different potato starch compounds: Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed.

Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, which is a highly branched molecule, help the potato retain its shape after being boiled in water. Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal. Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties.

Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin , the latter of which is most industrially useful. The German chemical company BASF created the Amflora potato, which has been modified to contain antisense against the enzyme that drives synthesis of amylose, namely granule bound starch synthase. In , the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for industrial purposes only—not for food.

Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory. Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of , and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years. Simplot Company , which contains genetic modifications that prevent bruising and produce less acrylamide when fried than conventional potatoes; the modifications do not cause new proteins to be made, but rather prevent proteins from being made via RNA interference.

The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia [6] between and BC. The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancon central Peru , dating to BC.

According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between and The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world.

The potato was slow to be adopted by European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom. In , a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans , spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland as well as parts of the Scottish Highlands , resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine.

However, the local importance of potato is variable and rapidly changing. It remains an essential crop in Europe especially eastern and central Europe , where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia.

In an amount measuring grams 3. The potato is rarely eaten raw because raw potato starch is poorly digested by humans. Potatoes are often broadly classified as having a high glycemic index GI and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. The GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on the cultivar or cultivar category such as "red", russet , "white", or King Edward , growing conditions and storage, preparation methods by cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole , and accompanying foods consumed especially the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings.

In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the National Health Service NHS as counting or contributing towards the recommended daily five portions of fruit and vegetables , the 5-A-Day program. This table shows the nutrient content of potatoes next to other major staple foods, each one measured in its respective raw state, even though staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating.

In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains or other foods may be different from the values in this table. Each nutrient every row has the highest number highlighted to show the staple food with the greatest amount in a gram raw portion. Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids , of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine.

Solanine is found in other plants in the same family, Solanaceae , which includes such plants as deadly nightshade Atropa belladonna , henbane Hyoscyamus niger and tobacco Nicotiana spp. These compounds, which protect the potato plant from its predators, are generally concentrated in its leaves, flowers, sprouts, and fruits in contrast to the tubers.

The glycoalkaloid content was, in order from highest to lowest: Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber. The concentration of glycoalkaloids in wild potatoes is sufficient to produce toxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloid poisoning may cause headaches, diarrhea , cramps , and, in severe cases, coma and death.

However, poisoning from cultivated potato varieties is very rare. Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, giving a visual clue as to which areas of the tuber may have become more toxic.

However, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Different potato varieties contain different levels of glycoalkaloids.

The Lenape variety was released in but was withdrawn in as it contained high levels of glycoalkaloids. In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.

Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes, tubers specifically grown to be free from disease and to provide consistent and healthy plants.

To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. In the US, this restricts production of seed potatoes to only 15 states out of all 50 states where potatoes are grown.

In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland , in areas where westerly winds prevent aphid attack and thus prevent spread of potato virus pathogens. Potato growth is divided into five phases. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins. During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches. In the third phase, stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the stem and grow downwards into the ground and on these stolons new tubers develop as swellings of the stolon.

This phase is often, but not always, associated with flowering. At this phase, several factors are critical to a good yield: The fifth and final phase is the maturation of the tubers: New tubers may start growing at the surface of the soil. Since exposure to light leads to an undesirable greening of the skins and the development of solanine as a protection from the sun's rays, growers cover surface tubers.

Commercial growers cover them by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows called "hilling" up, or in British English "earthing up". An alternative method, used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers, involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or plastic sheets. Correct potato husbandry can be an arduous task in some circumstances. Good ground preparation, harrowing , plowing , and rolling are always needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water.

Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. In general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. Seed potato crops are rogued in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop.

Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts , which damage them in the ground. Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop. The historically significant Phytophthora infestans late blight remains an ongoing problem in Europe [30] [75] and the United States.

Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle , the potato tuber moth , the green peach aphid Myzus persicae , the potato aphid , beet leafhoppers , thrips , and mites.

The potato cyst nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended. During the crop year , many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide [77] to control potato blight Phytophthora infestans.

A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on potatoes over the 2, samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1. The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2, samples was 1. While this was a very low value of pesticide residue, it was the highest amongst the 50 vegetables analyzed.

At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" or graip , i. In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters , which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth.

This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Different designs use different systems at this point. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system to separate the potatoes from the plant. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck.

Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage. Immature potatoes may be sold as "creamer potatoes" and are particularly valued for taste. These are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i. A creamer potato is a variety of potato harvested before it matures to keep it small and tender. It is generally either a Yukon Gold potato or a red potato, called gold creamers [81] or red creamers respectively, and measures approximately 1 inch 2.

Like potatoes in general, they can be prepared by boiling, baking, frying, and roasting. Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin-set. Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations.

Curing allows the skin to fully set and any wounds to heal. Wound-healing prevents infection and water-loss from the tubers during storage. Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch.

The discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in has led to international health concerns. They are believed to be probable carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods is being studied for potentially influencing health problems. Under optimum conditions in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to 10—12 months.

Mechanical ventilation is used at various points during the process to prevent condensation and the accumulation of carbon dioxide. When stored in homes unrefrigerated, the shelf life is usually a few weeks. If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, trimming or peeling those green-colored parts is inadequate to remove copresent toxins, and such potatoes are no longer edible.

The world dedicated The average world farm yield for potato was Potato farms in the United States were the most productive in , with a nationwide average of New Zealand farmers have demonstrated some of the best commercial yields in the world, ranging between 60 and 80 tonnes per hectare, some reporting yields of 88 tonnes potatoes per hectare. There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato.

Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38—44 tonnes per hectare. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in , and had yields of Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. Improvements in one or more of these yield determinants, and a closure of the yield gap, can be a major boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the developing world.

Potatoes are prepared in many ways: The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. Most potato dishes are served hot but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips crisps.

Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient.

Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25 [95] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft. Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3, varieties of this tuber are grown there. Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia , [] and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru , Bolivia, Argentina , and Chile.

In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago , potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca. In Ecuador , the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas , a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese. In the UK , potatoes form part of the traditional staple fish and chips.

Roast potatoes are commonly served with a Sunday roast , and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes such as shepherd's pie , bubble and squeak , and bangers and mash.

New potatoes may be cooked with mint and often served with butter. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish. Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the North, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder.

A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire , especially Liverpool , is made with cooked and mashed potatoes. These are then mixed with regionally varying ingredients. In Germany, Northern and Eastern Europe especially in Scandinavian countries , Finland, Poland, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine , newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy.

Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill , these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring. Puddings made from grated potatoes kugel , kugelis , and potato babka are popular items of Ashkenazi , Lithuanian , and Belarusian cuisine. Bauernfrühstück literally farmer's breakfast is a warm German dish made from fried potatoes, eggs , ham and vegetables.

Cepelinai is Lithuanian national dish. They are a type of dumpling made from riced potatoes see Potato ricer and usually stuffed with minced meat , although sometimes dry cottage cheese curd or mushrooms are used instead. Stamppot , a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier , named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier , a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country.

The pâté aux pommes de terre is a regional potato dish from the central Allier and Limousin regions. In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup.

In western Norway, komle is popular. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. Tortilla de patatas potato omelette and patatas bravas a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce are near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas.

In the US, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments. French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger "joints" and cafeterias.

One popular favourite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese or sour cream and chives on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel have great popularity. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste.

A regional dish of Central New York , salt potatoes are bite-size new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter. At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. Among American Jews , the practice of eating latkes fried potato pancakes is common during the festival of Hanukkah. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée.

The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato , salted, sometimes filled with pork in the centre, and boiled.

The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar. Poutine , by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy.

Tracing its origins to Quebec in the s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada. Potato grading for Idaho potatoes is performed in which No. In South Asia , the potato is a very popular traditional staple.

In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi , batata vada , and samosa , which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried. Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney.

In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favourite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India. It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse paste rolled over spicy smashed potato and eaten with sambhar and chutney. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal.

Other favourite dishes are alu tikki and pakoda items. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Aloo posto a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal. Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations.

The Aloo gosht , Potato and meat curry , is one of the popular dishes in South Asia , especially in Pakistan. In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan.

In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes. It is also occasionally seen in Korean and Thai cuisines. During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve.

Van Gogh 's painting The Potato Eaters portrays a family eating potatoes.

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