This indicator allows an assessment of iodine deficiency at the population level. Serum retinol levels reflect liver vitamin A stores when they are severely depleted or extremely high, but between these extremes, plasma or serum retinol is homeostatically controlled and therefore does not always correlate well with vitamin A intake. Mainstreaming nutrition in poverty reduction strategy papers: Our vision is for the Mississippi Urban Research Center to become a premier center for urban research and service. This indicator reflects the percentage of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during the current or past pregnancy within the last 2 years. Trade volumes of a broad range of basic foodstuffs cereals, roots and tubers, pulses, oilseeds and oils other than tree crop oils, meat and dairy products are converted and aggregated by the calorie content of individual commodities.
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This document should be useful to academic and research institutes, and groups and individuals who work on these indicators. This document is available in English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The Chinese and Arabic version of the report will also be available soon. Skip to main content. The state of food security and nutrition in the world News release Read more about the report Watch the launch webcast. News release Capture the moment - Early initiation of breastfeeding: Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: National implementation of the international code.
WHO plan to eliminate industrially-produced trans -fatty acids from global food supply. Saturated fatty acid and trans-fatty intake for adults and children Guidelines: Read for more information. Guidance to promote breastfeeding in health facilities. Global nutrition monitoring framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Read more about the operational guidance.
Latest publications The state of food security and nutrition in the world Capture the moment - Early initiation of breastfeeding: SNAP provides important nutritional support for low-wage working families, low-income seniors, and people with disabilities living on fixed incomes.
Close to 70 percent of SNAP participants are in families with children; nearly a third are in households with seniors or people with disabilities. After unemployment insurance, it is the most responsive federal program providing additional assistance during economic downturns. The federal government pays the full cost of SNAP benefits and splits the cost of administering the program with the states, which operate the program.
Unlike most means-tested benefit programs, which are restricted to particular categories of low-income individuals, SNAP is broadly available to almost all households with low incomes.
SNAP eligibility rules and benefit levels are, for the most part, set at the federal level and uniform across the nation, though states have flexibility to tailor aspects of the program, such as the value of a vehicle a household may own and still qualify for benefits. Under federal rules, to qualify for SNAP benefits, a household must meet three criteria although states have flexibility to adjust these limits:.
Some categories of people are not eligible for SNAP regardless of how small their income or assets may be, such as strikers, most college students, and certain legal immigrants. Undocumented immigrants also are ineligible for SNAP. Most unemployed childless adults are limited to three months of benefits, unless they are working at least 20 hours per week or participating in a qualifying workfare or job training program.
States may seek temporary waivers from this time limit for areas with high unemployment, where qualifying jobs are scarce. To receive a waiver, states must provide detailed Labor Department unemployment data for the state or areas within the state that demonstrate sustained levels of high unemployment.
During the recession and its aftermath, most states were covered by waivers from the time limit due to high unemployment. However, as unemployment rates fell, fewer areas across the country qualified for statewide waivers.
In all but a few states, the time limit was in effect in some or all of the state by January CBPP estimates that at least , people lost benefits over the course of as the time limit returned in those states.
States also have separate, broad authority to impose work requirements on many adults in SNAP households. Each state designs its own SNAP application process, following federal guidelines. In most states, households apply in person at the welfare office, though they can also mail or fax their applications, and most states have online applications.
Applicants must participate in an eligibility interview, which can often be on the phone. They must also document numerous aspects of their eligibility, including their identity, residency, immigration status, household composition, income and resources, and deductible expenses.
The SNAP benefit formula targets benefits according to need: Households found to be eligible receive an EBT electronic benefit transfer card, which is loaded with benefits once a month. Household members may use it to purchase food at one of the , retailers authorized to participate in the program. More than 80 percent of benefits are redeemed at supermarkets or superstores. SNAP cannot be used to purchase alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, vitamin supplements, non-food grocery items such as household supplies, or hot foods.
Households must contact the welfare office to report if their income goes up dramatically. They also must reapply for SNAP periodically, typically every six to 12 months for most families and every 12 to 24 months for seniors and people with disabilities.
The benefit formula assumes that families will spend 30 percent of their net income for food; SNAP makes up the difference between that 30 percent contribution and the cost of the Thrifty Food Plan TFP , a low-cost but nutritionally adequate diet plan established by the U. A family with no net income receives the maximum benefit amount, which equals the cost of the Thrifty Food Plan for a household of its size see Table 1.
SNAP benefits in Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and the Virgin Islands are higher than in the other 48 states and DC because income eligibility standards, maximum benefits, and deduction amounts are different in those states and territories. The maximum benefit was higher from April through October due to a benefit increase in the Recovery Act. Ninety-three percent of SNAP spending went directly to benefits that households used to purchase food, and 6.
As currently structured, SNAP is not contributing to long-term budgetary pressures. Less than 1 percent went to federal administrative costs. Caseloads expanded significantly between and as the recession and lagging economic recovery dramatically increased the number of low-income households who qualified and applied for help.
These changes were temporary, however. SNAP caseloads grew more slowly in and and fell by 2 percent in both and As the effects of the recovery have been felt more broadly, SNAP participation has declined at a faster rate. The number of SNAP participants in an average month was 3 percent lower in than in , and almost 5 percent lower in than in SNAP caseloads fell by nearly 1 million people in both and , but by 1. SNAP spending has fallen as well, due to declining caseloads as well as a drop in average benefits.
SNAP spending has fallen every year beginning in ; in it declined 4 percent below the level. Measured as a share of the economy gross domestic product or GDP , SNAP spending fell by 7 percent in and another 8 percent in , and the Congressional Budget Office CBO projects that it will return to the level in the next few years.
Thus, as currently structured, SNAP is not contributing to long-term budgetary pressures. SNAP benefits are an entitlement, which means that anyone who qualifies under program rules can receive benefits. As a result, SNAP responds quickly and effectively to support low-income families and communities during times of increased need. Enrollment expands when the economy weakens and contracts when the economy recovers and poverty declines.
In this way, SNAP helps families to bridge temporary periods of unemployment or a family crisis. If a parent loses her job or has a job that pays low wages, SNAP can help her feed her children until she is able to improve her circumstances. SNAP helps households with limited resources to purchase adequate food. Studies show that SNAP benefits have reduced food insecurity for those households.
SNAP benefits are one of the fastest, most effective forms of economic stimulus because they get money into the economy quickly during a recession.
Low-income individuals generally spend all of their income meeting daily needs such as shelter, food, and transportation, so every dollar in SNAP that a low-income family receives enables the family to spend an additional dollar on food or other items.